The English Civil War
Introduction to the War
The English Civil War began in 1642 when Charles I raised his royal standard in Nottingham. Charles strongly disagreed with Parliament about most things and commonly agued with them about money and religion. The division between Charles and Parliament was such that neither side was willing to back down and the country split into people who supported the king and those who supported the Parliament. In 1642 the first major battle broke out between them, to which both sides claimed success, with no decisive result. Later, in the battle of Marston Moor (1644), Charles lost control of England. Finally, in the battle of Naseby (1645), Cromwell's "New Model Army" inflicted a fatal blow to the Kings army. Charles did not recover from this defeat and his cause was lost. In 1646 Charles surrendered to the Scots rather than Parliament, hoping to collapse their alliance. However, the Scots took advantage of Charles and sold him to Parliament for 400,000 pounds. The final supporters of the king were defeated in Preston and the king himself was later executed.
Charles I - (Nov 19, 1600 - Jan 30, 1649) was monarch of England , Scotland, and Ireland from march 27, 1625 until he was executed in 1649. Charles was the son of King James VI of Scotland and shared similar views as him. Charles opposed the Parliament in the English Civil War of 1642-49.
Parliament of England - The legislature of the Kingdom of England with roots back to the medieval period. Very similar in power and authority to today's congress.
Oliver Cromwell - (April 25, 1599 - Sep 3, 1658) was an English military and political leader. He helped to create the New Model Army that lead to the downfall of the royalist forces.
Causes of the War
- The execution of Black Tom Tyrant the Earl of Stafford.
- The demand for Charles I to get rid of the star council chamber.
- Charles I watched his father and the parliament fight .
- James believed in the divine rights of a king.
Through the Years
King Charles I Arrests 5 MPs - January 4, 1642
War Preparations - January, 1642
King Charles and Sir John Hotham - April, 1642
The Nineteen Propositions - June, 1642
King Charles Formally Declares War - August 22, 1642
Portsmouth is Lost to Parliament - September 7, 1642
The Battle of Edgehill - October 23, 1642
After everything, Charles cause was lost. The king actually helped in his own downfall and demise. In 1646 Charles surrendered to the Scots rather than Parliament, hoping to collapse their already weak alliance. The Scots took advantage of Charles and sold him to Parliament for 400,000 pounds. In 1647, he escaped to Carisbrooke Castle on the Isle of Wight and caused the short, second civil war in 1648. The remaining supporters of the king were defeated at the battle of Preston. He was put on trial at Westminister Hall in January 1649 and found guilty for "tyrant, traitor and murderer; and a public and implacable enemy to the Commonwealth of England." He was then executed on January 30th, 1649 with Oliver Cromwell's signature clearly legible on his death warrant.
Primary sources - http://lukehistory.com/resources/ecwpubs.html
These primary sources include information such as King Charles' position and plans for raising standard in Nottingham in August and includes first hand accounts from both sides of a battle. I think they were written to show what they went through and to record events as accurately as possible. Also some of these sources were publicized for the public to understand what was occurring.
Other Sources -