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Lyme Disease

Description

Lyme disease is an infection transmitted by the bite of ticks carrying the spiral-shaped bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi

Orgamism's m.o.

Lyme disease is a vector-borne disease, which means that it is delivered for one host to another. It is a disease of animals that can be transmitted from them to a human under natural conditions. Usually carried by ticks with the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. This bacterium is inserted into the host's bloodstream when the tick bites the host to feed on their blood.

Most common victims to prey upon

Humans and animals. Ticks go through three stages of life: larva, nymph, and adults. In the summer, some larval ticks hatch from the ground and feed on small animals and birds. This doesn't affect humans, but the next stage of a ticks life cycle does. Nymphs are very active from spring through early summer, at the height of outdoor activity for most people. Because they are still quite small they are difficult to spot, giving them an opportunity to transmit Borrelia Burgdorferi while feeding.

Hideout of this culprit

There have been cases of Lyme disease in 49 out of the 50 states, but the top nine states that this disease occurs in are Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Massachusetts, and Wisconsin.

It is also found in Continental Europe, Scandinavia, the countries of the former Soviet Union, Japan, China, and Australia.

most common injury done to victim

One of the most recognizable signs of Lyme disease is a rash around the site of the tick bite. The rash usually develops within 3-30 days of being bite and begins as a round, red patch that expands outwards. About 50% of people with the disease noticed flu like symptoms such as fatigue, headaches, fever and chills, and muscle and joint pain. (if the rash shows up before three days and goes away on its own, it's most likely an allergic reaction, not Lyme)

Weeks, months, or even years after an untreated tick bite, symptoms can appear in several forms, including:


  • Fatigue, forgetfulness, confusion, mood swings, irritability, numbness.
  • Neurologic problems, such as pain (unexplained and not triggered by an injury), Bell's palsy (facial paralysis, usually one-sided but may be on both sides), and meningitis; (fever, severe headache).
  • Arthritis (short episodes of pain and swelling in joints) and other musculoskeletal complaints. Arthritis eventually develops in about 60% of patients with untreated Lyme disease.


Less common effects of Lyme disease are heart abnormalities (such as irregular rhythm or cardiac block) and eye abnormalities (such as swelling of the cornea, tissue, or eye muscles and nerves).

Is it armed and dangerous?

Yes this disease is considered a 7 on the scale of how dangerous and armed. It is a 7 because even though this disease is curable, the symptoms never fully go away. They can occur months or even years after being treated. They can cause a ton of problems and pain (muscle and joint wise) for pretty much the majority of your life.

Most effective weapon against this

The treatment for Lyme disease is antibiotic therapy. Disease organisms can develop resistance to families of medications over time, making the drugs useless, so deciding whether to do this treatment or not should be made with care.

Another treatment is oral antibiotics such as(doxycycline or amoxicillin). This can be prescribed for 21 days. When symptoms indicate nervous system involvement or a severe episode of Lyme disease, intravenous antibiotic (ceftriaxone) may be given for 14-30 days.

5 interesting facts

1) insect repellent containing the chemical DEET is the most effective way to repel Lyme-carrying ticks
2) the rash gradually expands over a period of several days, reaching up to 12 inches across
3) Lyme disease is the most wide spread vector-borne disease in the US and is a major problem worldwide
4) Although “bull’s-eye” rash is 100% diagnostic less than 50% develop any rash at all
5) Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) is the most complex bacterium known to science which makes Lyme disease a very complex illness, not always easy to diagnose or treat