Reading Interventions

Effective components for primary students.

What are effective components of reading interventions for primary students?

By: Lauren Lemar

LTCY 536 Research Proposal Poster


The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of the University of Florida Literacy Initiative (UFLI) model (Lane, Pullen, Hudson & Konold, 2009) on the reading achievement of first graders participating in small group reading intervention.

University of Florida Literacy Initiatives (UFLI)

Within my study, I will be using the UFLI model as a way to conduct small group interventions. There will be two groups within the study: the treatment group which I will instruct using the UFLI model and a control group, which will be instructed by a colleague using instruction without specified components but incorporating various aspects of literacy based on students' needs.

UFLI Components

UFLI is comprised of 5 steps. Below is a description of each step, including the ideal time frame for each step.


Step 1: Gaining Fluency (8-9 minutes) The teacher will select a text “that the students [have] read before and is able to read with 90-100% accuracy” (Lane, Pullen, Hudson & Konold, 2009, p.282). As the student is reading this text, the teacher will calculate and graph the students’ words per minute.


Step 2: Measuring Progress (3-4 minutes) The teacher “takes a running record of the child’s reading of the previous sessions’ new book to determine the appropriate level for today’s new book and to identify areas of for future coaching and instruction” (Lane, Pullen, Hudson & Konold, 2009, p.283)


Step 3: Writing for Reading (8-10 minutes) The teacher will then look at words from the reading or from daily use and practice analyzing and reading these words. The teacher may use Elkonin boxes to apply segmenting strategies (Lane, Pullen, Hudson & Konold, 2009).


Step 4: Reading a New Book (7-9 minutes) “Reading a new book provides a chance for the child to learn new reading strategies and to practice the application of previously learned strategies with progressively more difficult text (Lane, Pullen, Hudson & Konold, 2009, p. 283). The teacher will use the knowledge of the running record of the previous “new book” to determine which book would be appropriate for instruction, today. This part of the intervention would include “the most intensive and applied reading instruction” (Lane, Pullen, Hudson & Konold, 2009, p.283).


Step 5: Extending Literacy (4-8 minutes) During this part of the intervention, a variety of text genres and text features will be explored. “An important aspect of this step is that the student generalizes strategies beyond the leveled books (Lane, Pullen, Hudson & Konold, 2009, p. 284).


Total time: 30-40 minutes


Source: Lane, H. B., Pullen, P. C., Hudson, R. F., & Konold, T. R. (2009). Identifying Essential

Instructional Components of Literacy Tutoring for Struggling Beginning Readers. Literacy Research And Instruction, 48(4), 277-297.

Methodology for the Study

This is a quasi-experimental study, students will not be randomly assigned to a group. I will use repeated measures to determine if there was significant growth based on instruction using the UFLI model. I will begin by providing the Gates MacGinite Reading Test as a pre-assessment to the students in two first grade classrooms. The Gates MacGinite Reading Test is comprised of two sub tests including: word decoding and comprehension. I will analyze students' scores and look at their overall percentile rank. The raw scores will be added together to find this percentile rank and we will focus on students' whose total raw score falls below the 25th percentile for the study.


There will be 4-5 students per group and as stated, there will be two groups participating in the study. My school has implemented a 30 minute intervention block. During that time, students in a grade level are divided into intervention groups based on needs and Fountas and Pinnell levels. For this study, however, I will use the results of the pre-assessment to determine the group I will work with for the duration of the study and intervention. Teachers serve as interventionist during this intervention time, taking the lowest group. Without a program to guide instruction, I would like conduct a study to test the UFLI model, to determine if the components are effective components of an intervention for beginning readers.


The treatment group will receive about 7 weeks of instruction or about 35 intervention sessions. The time frame was decided based on the study done by Lane, Pullen, Hudson, and Konold (2009) as they based their data and results off of 35 sessions. Using the UFLI model for reading intervention and these students will be instructed by me. The control group will be following a previous method of intervention and will be instructed by my colleague, another first grade teacher in my building. During interventions, teachers will record both attendance of students and what was completed in each intervention time. This is how I will ensure triangulation with the data.


After seven weeks of instruction, the students in the intervention will take the post-assessment, which will be the Gates MacGinite Reading Test.

Data Collection

Students pre-and post- assessment scores will be collected using the Gates MacGinite Reading Test. The students raw scores of the two subtests will be totaled to find an overall raw score. Then students' scores will the averaged together to find the mean.


Teachers' record of activities and instruction for each intervention session will be collected to compare at the end of the study. This notes will be used to triangulate the data.

Data Analysis

The mean scores of the pre-and post- assessment will be determined and compared using a T test. The mean will be based off of the students' totaled raw scores. I will use the data to determine which group showed the most significant growth.

Expected Outcomes

I expect the data to show that the group instructed using the UFLI model will show the significant growth over the control group as a result of the 7 weeks of intervention instruction.

Implications

With the results of this study, I can determine which instructional method is most effective for small group reading intervention. I would hope to further the study by including a larger sample size. I would also like to study this model in bilingual classrooms. The UFLI model is not scripted, it provides an outline with activities to be done in each step (as seen above), this could be adapted to use with bilingual students, and given that my school has bilingual classrooms where literacy activities are instructed in Spanish, I would like to see if this model proves to be effective as well.


This model supports Common Core State Standards by focusing on informational text, literature, and reading foundational skills. It can be adapted to a variety of strategies depending on needs of students and the current classroom focus or unit of study.

Lauren Lemar

Research Proposal Audio by Lauren Lemar