Types of Mining and Fracking

By: Connor, Timothee, George

Surface

Surface mining is when you remove soil, rock, etc... from on top to get to the desired resources.


The types of surface mining include strip mining, open pit mining, mountaintop removal mining.

Subsurface

Subsurface mining is when you dig passages into the earth to acquire resources.


The types of subsurface mining are slope mining, drift mining, and shaft mining.

Differences

Subsurface:

1. Not as much damage to surface ecosystems

2. Very Expensive and is more dangerous the deeper you dig.

3. Dangerous working conditions that can lead to death or serious injury and collapse of the facility.


Surface

1. Safe and easy

2. Does damage to surface ecosystems

3. If done improperly it leave a big mess.

Fracking

Fracking is the prosses of digging deep down into the earth and blasting the rocks with a special fliud that brakesdown the rocks and makes it easier to transport the resources out of the mine. Fracking though is very bad for the enviorment because it makes all the ground near it unstable and if the fluid is near water the water could be contaminated and hurt anyone that drinks it.

Surface Mining: Strip Mining

Strip Mining is when you remove a strip of soil, rocks, etc from on top of a seam of minerals.

Strip Mining in Illinois and Pennsylvania is common.

Open Pit Mining

Open Pit mining is when you dig a pit to reach deposits of minerals.

Environmental damage: Radioactive elements and toxic minerals/chemicals can leak into the air or ground.


Mountian Top Removal

Is when you mine the summit of a mountain to reach a seam of resources.


Slope Mining

Slope Mining

  • Description - digging a diagonal passage through the earth to obtain desired materials.

  • Effects on the environment

    • Erosion

    • Sinkholes

    • Chemical contamination of water, soil, air, etc.

    • Habitat destruction

  • Example - CONSOL Bailey Mine Crabapple Slope in Wind Ridge, Pennsylvania

Drift Mining

Drift Mining

  • Description - digging a horizontal passage through the earth to obtain desired materials

  • Effects on the environment

    • Erosion

    • Sinkholes

    • Chemical contamination of water, soil, air, etc.

    • Habitat destruction

  • Example - Harry Stoke Drift Mine in South Gloucestershire, UK

Shaft Mining

Shaft Mining

  • Description - digging a vertical tunnel through the earth to obtain desired materials

  • Effects on the environment

    • Erosion

    • Sinkholes

    • Chemical contamination of water, soil, air, etc.

    • Habitat destruction

  • Example - Martinez Mine in Arizona