This is intentional deception for gain.
Phishing and Smishing
This is when someone sends out an emial or text message in order to get your information.
Retail/ Auction Fraud
This is when you buy anything online but never receive it.
Work at Home
This could be when you see ads or signs for an easy job at home and someone just wants your information.
How to Avoid This
First you should never respond to emails that look like they might be fake, especially not with personal information. Also, make sure to do your research before you buy something.