Health Effects of Smoking

Risk Factors Associated, and Nursing Interventions

Cancers Associated with Smoking

Smoking can cause cancer in almost any part of your body.
  1. Bladder
  2. Blood
  3. Cervix
  4. Colon and Rectal
  5. Esophogaus
  6. Kidney and Ureter
  7. Larynx
  8. Liver
  9. Oropharynx (throat, tongue, soft palate, tonsils)
  10. Pancreatic
  11. Stomach
  12. Trachea, Bronchus, Lung
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General Risk Factors Associated with Smoking

  1. More than 480.000 deaths each year in United States are caused by smoking. (Nearly 1 in five deaths)
  2. Smoking causes 1 out of 3 cancer related deaths per year.
  3. About 80% of deaths from COPD are caused by cancer
  4. Smoking generally increases risk from dying from any cause in men and women.
  5. Smokers are more likely to develop heart disease, lung cancer, and stroke than nonsmokers.
  6. Smoking increases the risk of developing cataracts, and patients who smoke have a higher chance of developing diabetes type 2 mellitus. (30-40% higher than nonsmoker's risk)
  7. Can cause gum disease and tooth loss.
  8. In the United States, the mortality rate of smokers is three times higher than nonsmokers.
  9. Smoking changes the structure of the skin (discoloration, wrinkles, premature aging).
  10. yellow staining of fingernails, teeth and fingers
  11. Bad breath caused by smoking.
  12. May increase risk of early menopause in women
  13. Can cause Erectile Dysfunction in men who smoke
  14. There is an increased risk of infertility in men and women who smoke.
  15. Smoking is the number one preventable cause of death.

Benefits of Quitting

  • 1 year after quitting smoking, risk for heart attack drops sharply
  • 2-5 years of not smoking, your risk for having a stroke drops almost to same level as a nonsmoker's risk.
  • Risk for cancers of mouth/throat/esophogaus drop by half after five years of not smoking.

Nurses Role in Patient Smoking Cessation

  • Studies done have shown that nursing interventions in patient smoking cessation have been effective.
  • There is a need to incorporate smoking behavior monitoring and smoking cessation interventions into standard practice.
  • Reinforcement and follow up is needed for interventions to be the most effective.
  • Effects of nursing interventions are decreased when interactions are brief.