The Carbon Family

By: Spencer Rowe, Chris Goldman, Katrina Songco

Background information

The carbon family, group 14 in the p block, contains carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and Flerovirum (Uuq). These elements have only two electrons in the outermost p orbital. They tend to have oxidation states of +4 and, for the heavier elements, +2 due to the inert pair effect. Metallic properties increase as you move down the group. Carbon is a non-metal; silicon and germanium are metalloids; and tin and lead are poor metals.



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Carbon - C

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Valence electrons- 4


Electron Configuration- [He] 2s2 2p2


Lewis Dot

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Physical Properties

Melting Point: 3,500 C

Boiling Point: 4728 C

Density: 2.62 g/cm3

Color: Can be Black

Malleability: Not Malleable


Chemical Properties

Oxidation states: 4,3,2,1,0,-1,-2,-3,-4, with the most common being 4.



Reactivity: Carbon can be reactive with some other elements depend on the family involved worth it.


Notable Reactions: Carbon is most noted for its reactions with water and air. We all know that this will make water, air, and under intense pressure, diamonds


Silicon- Si

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Valence electrons: 4


Electron Configuration: [Ne] 3s2 3p2


Lewis dot diagram:


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Physical Properties

Melting Point: 1,414 degrees Celsius

Boiling Point: 3,265 degrees Celsius

Atomic Range Radius: 111 picometers

Density: 2.3290 g/cm3

Malleability: Medium (metalloid)

Color: The natural color of Silicon is gray although you can buy it in most colors.


Chemical Properties

Oxidation states: 4,2,3,1,0,-1,-2,-3,-4 with the most common being 4.



Reactivity: the only notable reaction is water

Uses for silicon

Silicon is one of the most useful elements to mankind.


  • Sand
  • Clay
  • Glass
  • Concrete
  • Steel


Germanium- Ge

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Valence electrons : 4



Noble gas electron Configuration : [Ar].3d10.4s2.4p2


Lewis dot diagram:

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Physical Properties

Melting point: 938.3 °C

Boiling point: 2820 °C

Atomic radius: 122 picometer

Density: 5323 kg m-3

Color: Grayish white

Malleability: Medium (metalloid)

Chemical Properties

Oxidation states: 4, 3, 2 ,1, 0, -1, -2, -3, -4 with most occurring in 2 & 4 form

Reactivity: inactive

Reactions: It will combine with chlorine and bromine to form germanium chloride (GeCl 4 ) and germanium bromide (GeBr 4 ).


Uses for Germanium

  • The largest use of germanium is in the semiconductor industry, germanium is put with with arsenic, gallium or other elements and used as transistors for use in electronic devices.


Tin - Sn

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Valence electrons: 4


Electron Configuration: [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2


Lewis Dot diagram:




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Physical Properties

Melting point: 232 °C

Boiling point: 2602 °C

Atomic Radius: 140 picometer

Density: 7.287 g/cm^3

Color: white

Malleability: yes

Chemical Properties

Oxidation states: two possible +2 and +4


Reactivity and reactions : Tin is unaffected by both water and oxygen at room temperatures. It does not rust, corrode, or react in any other way. It can be affected by acids and alkalis; which is a ionic salt of a alkaline earth metal.

Uses for Tin

  • Major use as a coating for protection to other metals
  • Tin also helps create solder . Solder is an alloy, usually made of tin and lead. It is used to join two metals to each other. An example being metal wires are attached to electrical devices by means of solder.


Lead- Pb

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Valence electrons: 4



Electrons configuration: [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2


Lewis dot diagram:

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Physical Properties

Melting Point: 327.46 C,

Boiling point: 1749 C

Density: 11.34 g/cm3

Malleability: Malleable

Color: Metallic Grey



Chemical properties

Oxidation states: 4, 3,2, 1 with the main ones being 4 &2


Reactivity and reactions: It dissolves slowly in water and in many cold acids. It reacts faster with hot acids. It does not react with oxygen in the air and does not burn.

Use for lead

  • Lead-acid storage batteries


Flerovium (Uuq)

Flerovium is also known as Element 114. It was found in 1998 by scientists in Dubna. It is radioactive.