Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI)

By Amber Anthony

What is a TBI?

A TBI is an acquired brain injury caused by sudden trauma to the head, which then causes trauma to the brain.


1.7 million TBIs occur every year in the U.S. They are responsible for 1/2 of all injury related deaths each year, and research has shown that males are more likely to suffer from these complications.


Some of the major characteristics of TBIs include, but are not limited to:

  • Memory and cognition loss, such as difficulty with logic, problem solving, and reasoning; slower responsiveness, and difficulty with memory.
  • Social and emotional regulation loss, such as inappropriate social behaviors, unpredictable emotional responses, and emotional instability.
  • Inattention and impulsivity, such as difficulty focusing attention along with impulses, thoughts, and feelings.
  • Speech and language loss, such as difficulty with speech and language deficits, problems speaking words or phrases, and trouble with comprehending what others say.


All of the listed characteristics can have a significant affect on a child's learning ability, which is why it is important to make room for accommodations, which you can find below.

Overview of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

In the Classroom...

Being that students with TBIs will not be able to follow along as well as they may once have been able to, it is important for educators to allow room for accommodations in the classroom, such as:

  • Allowing for additional time on assignments and activities as well as extended breaks for these students when the work becomes too overwhelming for them to handle.
  • Providing the student with instructor or classmate notes so they do not feel pressured to move at a pace that is too quick for them.
  • Allowing students to record lectures so they can go back and listen to the information that they missed.
  • Providing not only oral directions, but written clarifications also, so these students can go back and look at what their assignment is.
  • Reducing emphasis on spelling and grammar when grading.
  • Avoiding high-pressure situations so they do not become overwhelmed with their surroundings.
  • Providing seating at or near the front of the classroom for these students so they can have direct view of the educator as well as the front of the board.
  • Exempting these students from reading aloud in class so they do not feel pressured and become overwhelmed.

At Home...

It is also important for parents and child-care providers to tend to children at home, providing for accommodations such as:

  • Installing ramps and handrails around the home so TBI patients can safely and easily maneuver themselves from place to place.
  • Providing praise and positive reinforcement to help TBI patients handle stress and emotions appropriately.
  • Allowing for quiet time throughout the household so TBI patients can gather their thoughts and not become too overwhelmed with their surroundings.
  • Making time for outpatient as well as inpatient physical as well as mental therapy in order to help with their overall wellbeing and recovery process.
Click Here to Download the TBI App

This app provides all you need to know about TBIs, ranging from causes and types, to treatments and steps to recovery.

Additional Information

http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/tbi/tbi.htm

This website here also provides further information about the basics of TBIs. Additionally, it provides locations and contact information for organizations who are willing to help with prognosis.


http://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/basics.html

The site listed above helps shine light on TBI prevention, survivor rates, and other statistics.

References

Khan, F. & Baguley, I.J. (2003). Rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury. The Medical Journal of Australia.

Treatment. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.biausa.org/brain-injury-treatment.html.

Rehabilitation and treatment for TBI. (2015). Retrieved from

http://www.brainandspinalcord.org/Treatment-rehab-tbi/index.html.

Accommodations Guide for Students with Brain Injury. (n.d.). Retrieved May 2, 2016, from http://www.brainline.org/content/2011/10/accommodations-guide-for-students-with-brain-injury.html

10 Myths About Traumatic Brain Injury. (2015). Retrieved May 2, 2016, from http://taskandpurpose.com/10-myths-about-traumatic-brain-injury/

10 common myths and misconceptions about traumatic brain injury. (n.d.). Retrieved May 2, 2016, from http://www.slideshare.net/edwardkle/common-myths-and-misconceptions-about-traumatic-brain-injury-a-victims-guide

Fact Vs. Myth: Traumatic Brain Injury. (2012). Retrieved May 2, 2016, from https://blog.itriagehealth.com/fact-myth-traumatic-brain-injury/

Top 10 Myths About Traumatic Brain Injury. (n.d.). Retrieved May 2, 2016, from https://www.avvo.com/legal-guides/ugc/top-10-myths-about-traumatic-brain-injury