The Menstrual Cycle

Savannah Billings


A mature egg develops and is ovulated from one or two ovaries about once every 28 days. A complex series of actions between the pituitary and the ovary. Endometrium is necessary to receive and hold a fertilized egg for embryonic. Menstruation is the cycle that starts all over again. It starts between the age 9 and 17.

Stages- 1- Follicle Stage

It is secreted from the anterior lobe of the pituitary glad on day 5 of the menstrual cycle. It is circulated to an ovary via the bloodstream. When it reaches the ovary, it stimulate several follicles but only one matures. An egg cell also begins to mature inside the follicle. Then it fills with fluid containing estrogen. It last about 10 days.

2- Ovulation Stage

Concentration of estrogen in the female bloodstream reaches a high level, It causes the pituitary gland to stop FSH secretion. The luteinizing hormone is secreted by the pituitary gland. In day 14 the 3 hormones stimulates the mature follicle to break. A mature egg is released and its called ovualtion.

3- Corpus Luteum stage or Luteal Phase

LH stimulates the cells of the ruptured follicle to divide quickly. The mass of reddish yellow cells is called the corpus luteum. It secretes a hormone called progesterone. Progesterone is the pregnancy hormone.

4-Menstruation Stage

The progesterone reaches a level in the bloodstream. It further LH secretion. The corpus luteum breaks down causing a decrease in progesterone level decreases.


  • Definition- an abnormal absence of menstruation.
  • What causes it? Chromosomal or genetic abnormalities, Hypothalamic, Excessive exercise, eating disorders, extreme physical or psychological stress, or a combination of these factors. Pregnancy.
  • Symptoms-
  • Breast size changes.
  • Weight gain or weight loss.
  • Discharge from the breast or change in breast size.
  • Acne and increased hair growth in a male pattern.
  • Vaginal dryness.
  • Voice changes.


Definition- painful menstruation, typically involving abdominal cramps.

What causes it?- excessive levels of prostaglandins,

  • fibroids – benign tumors that develop within the uterine wall or are attached to it. Adenomyosis – the tissue that lines the uterus (called the endometrium) begins to grow within its muscular walls
  • a sexually transmitted infection (STI)
  • endometriosis – fragments of the endometrial lining that are found on other pelvic organs
  • pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which is primarily an infection of the fallopian tubes, but can also affect the ovaries, uterus, and cervix
  • Symptoms- Most common is pain in lower abdomen

Premenstrual syndrome

Definition-emotional tension and fluid retention experienced by some women in the days immediately before menstruation.

What causes it? related to the fluctuating levels of hormones, including estrogen and progesterone, that occur in preparation for menstruation.


  • Bloating
  • Breast tenderness
  • Weight gain
  • Aggression
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Headaches/backaches
  • Food cravings/overeating
  • Fatigue
  • Tearfulness
  • Irritability
  • Anxiety
  • Mood swings and/or depression


Definition- the ceasing of menstruation

What causes it?- It happens in a womans life. The common age is 50

Symptoms- Sexual inercourse, fatigue, night sweats, osteoporosis, hot flashes, or sweating,early awakening or insomnia, anxiety, dry skin, irritability, moodiness, reduced sex drive, or vaginal dryness.