Reason For The Amendment- Why was it proposed?
The amendment addresses citizenship rights and equal protection of the laws, and was proposed in response to issues related to former slaves following the American Civil War. The amendment was bitterly contested, particularly by Southern States, which were forced to ratify it in order for them to regain representation in Congress.
All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside.
Due Process Clause
Due process deals with the Administration of Justice and thus the due process clause acts as a safeguard from arbitrary denial of life, liberty, or property by the Government outside the sanction of law.
Opposition to the Amendment
The Opposition to the 14th Amendment came primarily from the federalist.