Evidence Based Strategies

Self Mgmt & Task Analysis via Chaining Prompting Time Delay

These four strategies can all be used (and are sometimes used synonymously in the literature) to teach students to follow a predictable routine. Task analysis is the strategy used to break skills down into manageable steps. Chaining, prompting and time delay are methods used to reinforce students while they are learning the steps within the specific routines or tasks.
EBP Brief: Task Analysis

National Professional Development Center on Autism EBP Brief Package

Research Related to Task Analysis

Teaching Daily Living Skills Through Pictorial Self-Management
In this study, task analysis was conducted related to the steps of various daily living skills. Pictorial routines were developed and taught to students. Self-management strategies were used to reinforce their learning and increase independence with the routines.

Living Skills with Routine

Training & Generalization of Social Interaction Skills
In this study, task analysis was utilized to break down social tasks and social interaction opportunities. Students were first taught the skills to use three rec/leisure leisure objects - gum, video game, and a radio; then students were taught to use these same objects while engaging in social interaction.

Social Interaction with Task Analysis
EBP Brief: Prompting

National Professional Development Center on Autism EBP Brief Package

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Research Related to Prompting

Effects of Picture Activity Schedule to Complete Tasks
In this study, tasks are visually represented for students to complete. Prompting is implemented as the strategy by which their self-management is achievement and independence is increased. Generalization was measured by moving the task from the school to the food court in a local mall.

Effects of Picture Activity Schedule

Using a Personal Digital Assistant to Increase Task Completion
In this study, a PDA was used to increase independence of task completion and reduce the need for verbal prompts from adults. This PDA was used in the school and home settings.

PDA for Task Completion
EBP Brief : Time Delay

National Professional Development Center on Autism EBP Brief Package

Research Related to Time Delay

Constant Time Delay in Math
This information sheet provides a small bit of research as well as a script regarding the use of time delay in the subject are of mathematics. The research cited relates to students with learning disabilities; however, time delay is an EBP found extensively in research related to the ASD population.

Time Delay in Math

Examples From the Field: Routines & Other Tasks Taught via Strategies Listed Above

  • helped teach job coaches to use task analysis to help us understand where the student starts to fall apart
  • use social narratives and task analysis a lot with video modeling
Routines Pinterest Board

This Pinterest Board contains multiple routines, which could be incorporated into task analysis and then taught using prompting, time delay or chaining.

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PODD page used during rec/leisure, specific to the game Guess Who. Task Analysis was utilized to instruct the student in the use of this communication tool.
[Developed by Bonnie Kiernan]

Apps to Support Task Analysis and the Development of Routines

Connectability

Free visual website makes Boardmaker-like pages.

Self-Management

Self-management interventions help learners with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) learn to independently regulate their own behaviors and act appropriately in a variety of home, school, and community-based situations. With these interventions, learners with ASD are taught to discriminate between appropriate and inappropriate behaviors, accurately monitor and record their own behaviors, and reward themselves for behaving appropriately. As learners with ASD become more fluent with the self-management system, some of the implementation responsibilities shift from teachers, families, and other practitioners to the learners themselves. [text from National Professional Development Center on Autism]

Video modeling is a mode of teaching that uses video recording and display equipment to provide a visual model of the targeted behavior or skill. Types of video modeling include basic video modeling, video self-modeling, point-of-view video modeling, and video prompting.
  • Basic video modeling involves recording someone besides the learner engaging in the target behavior or skill (i.e., models). The video is then viewed by the learner at a later time.
  • Video self-modeling is used to record the learner displaying the target skill or behavior and is reviewed later.
  • Point-of-view video modeling is when the target behavior or skill is recorded from the perspective of the learner.
  • Video prompting involves breaking the behavior skill into steps and recording each step with incorporated pauses during which the learner may attempt the step before viewing subsequent steps. Video prompting may be done with either the learner or someone else acting as a model. [text from the National Professional Development Center on Autism]