The Modern Era 1750-1900
Key points in time
- In a famous letter Qianlong states "Our Celestrial Empire possesses all things in prolific abundance."
- By 1912 the empire had collapsed leaving it dependent on European countries
1798: Napolean invades Egypt
- Resulted in a victory by Napolean and the end of the Mameluke rule in Egypt.
- The Tenpo famine is considered to have begun in 1833, and lasted until 1837.
- In the last year of the famine there was a revolt in Osaka led by Ōshio Heihachirō against the city officials that refused to feed the hungry citizens
1838-42 1856-58: The Opium wars
- The first opium war concluded with the treaty of Nanjing giving the English five trade ports. The United Kingdom also took control of Hong Kong. This act of the Of the English became known as the unequal treaties to the Chinese.
- During the second Opium war British fought to legalize opium trade. The war resulted in a second group of trade port, eventually becoming a total of more than 80 ports.
- Commissioner Lin is known for his strong opposition to opium trade and his lead in the campaign. One of the primary causes of the first opium war.
Sick man of Europe
- In the mid 1800s the term "sick man of Europe" was used to describe the political, social, and economic state of the Ottoman Empire.
- The empire lacked ability to raise necessary revenue due to the local warlords gaining more power. Janessaries also become less dependent, losing their military edge.
1838-1876: Tanzimat Reforms
- Began under ruler Mahmut II seen right
- Series of reforms in the Ottoman Empire meaning. "Reorganization"
- Characterized by a series of reforms put in place to modernize the Ottoman Empire.
- Secret society dissatisfied with the Tanzimat reforms.
- They had their defining moment in 1876 when the Ottoman Constitution came into place, the first attempt of a constitution in the empire.
- 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Oversaw a period of decline of the Ottoman Power.
- Adopted the Ottoman Constitution of 1876
- Moved from the throne in 1909 to welcome the return of constitutional rule.
1908: Young Turks
- Another political reform movement in 1908
- A rebellion was led against the Sultan Abdul Hamid II
- With a victory the Young Turks removed Hamid and establish the second constitutional era.
- Series of reforms during the late Qing Dynasty
- Following both losses in the first and second opium wars many officials argued that it was necessary to adopt western military technology.
- This was to be achieved by building shipyards and hiring foreign advisors
1899-1901: Boxer rebellion
- Western powers as well as Japan responded to the persecution of European and Chinese christians.
- The conflict ended in a Allied victory
1911: Chinese Revolution of 1911
- Group of revolutionaries overthrew the Qing dynasty putting an end to the dynastic rule in China. Putting in place a Republic.
- This was used to describe a place Europe conquered, some of them retained their old government, This was a "informal empire."
- Founded under Tokugawa Ieyasu
- Last fundal Japanese military government
- The heads of the empire were shoguns of the Tokugawa clan
1853: Commodore Perry arrives in Japan
- Admiral Perry was assigned by the President of the U.S. to open the ports of Japan, with force if necessary.
- The U.S. was driven by the concepts of the Manifest destiny, the growing commerce of America and China, as well as American Whalers in Japanese off shore waters.
1868: Meiji restoration
- Chain of events that restored practical imperial rule to Japan under emperor Meiji
1904-1905: Russo-Japanese War
- War fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over land in Korea and Manchuria and the Yellow sea.
- Resulted in a Japanese victory with the Treaty of Portsmouth.
- The Battle of Adwa was fought in 1896 between the Ethiopian Empire and the Kingdom of Italy
- Resulted in a Ethiopian victory securing Ethiopias independance