The Five Colonies
Significant facts by Alex Nicoll
1. John Oglethorpe-founder and first governor of Georgia. Made the colony refuge for debtors and was tolerant of religions besides Roman Catholicism.
2. 1733-year the last colony in North America was founded.
3. Savannah River-first settlement in Georgia was named after the river. Provided water access to facilitate trade and fishing.
4. King George's War-Oglethorpe and company repelled Spanish attacks to invade South Carolina in 1739 but failed to capture St. Augustine. Fulfilled purpose of being a "buffer" state.
5. "Buffer" status-Georgia was a buffer state between the hostile French and Spanish territories of Louisiana and Florida.
6. 1752-the year the colony became a royal colony after the trustees neglected to establish a self-government and lost interest as it did not yield the philanthropic goals of theirs.
7. Creek Indians-the dominant tribe in Georgia. They had good relations with the Spanish to the south, so Oglethorpe made a it a primary goal to establish friendly trade connections with them. Also negotiating peace with the Creeks also helped
8. "The Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia"-philanthropic organization of 21 trustees that demanded a royal charter from King George II to settle the colony.
9. Prohibitions-prohibited slavery the longest of all colonies (till 1750) and the import of alcohol.
10. Silk-one of the main commodities along with wine to be exported back to England.
1. House of Burgesses-first representative government in the colonies.
2. 1607-the Jamestown colony was the first permanent English colony in North America. This solidified a hold in the New World that encouraged others to come over.
3. John Rolfe-colonist that discovered the perfect way to harvest and breed tobacco to make it the most profitable crop. Married Pocahontas to restore peace between the colonists and Powhatan's tribes.
4. John Smith-savior of Jamestown. Organized aristocratic colonists and forced them to provide for the colony in order for it to survive.
5. Tobacco-cash crop that saved Jamestown financially. Main export of the colony. Also led to the need of forced labor because of the
6. Virginia Company of London-first joint-stock company that received a charter to claim land in North America. Funded the settlement for economic profit, "religion", and English glory.
7. "Starving TIme"-period between 1609-1610 of starvation in the colonies. Out of the 400 colonists present at the time only 60 survived almost destroying the colony and reducing it to savagery.
8. Anglo-Powhatan Wars-wars raged between colonists and Powhatan's Confederacy that decimated both Indian and English numbers. This resulted in the Peach Treaty of 1646.
9. Slave Codes-1662 laws that made slaves property for life of their masters. Took all freedoms from forced laborers. Not even conversion to Christianity could save them from shackles.
10. Location-the Jamestown colony was placed in a swampy mosquito-infested area that carried diseases and led to hardships for the colonists.
1. William Penn-founder of the colony. Received land grant from the King of England to settle a debt.
2. Quakers- It was the religion of Penn and also the main factor for establishing the Pennsylvania colony. It was a refuge for those that sought a place to practice their faith.
3. Religious Tolerance-Penn established Pennsylvania as a safe haven for dissenters and others persecuted for their religion.
4. Representative Assembly-government of freemen or all land-owing individuals that controlled colony affairs.
5. Cottage Industries-employed all colonists to work and the trades of weaving, shoemaking, and cabinetmaking enhanced the economy of Pennsylvania.
6. Grain-one of the main exports of the colony. Provided financial stability for the colonists.
7. 1682-year the colony was founded. it is the twelfth colony to be established in North America.
8. Philadelphia-major city and port in Pennsylvania. Attracted Scottish and German immigrants.
9. Charter of Privileges-1701 reconstructed constitution that gave almost all power to colonists, even though the governor could veto legislation. Lasted as Pennsylvania's constitution tell the American Revolution.
10. Friends Public School-first learning institution in the colonies that placed emphasis on literacy, vocational, and educational fundamentals to all colonists no matter age, sex, or financial position.
1. Sir George Calvert (Lord Baltimore)-received grant of the proprietary colony.
2. Toleration Act of 1649-guranteed toleration to all Christians and was supported fully by Catholics living in the colony. Protected Catholics from growing Protestant population.
3. Feudal System-Calvert admired this system from the Middle Ages and employed it at first in Maryland. He granted feudal lands to his cousins and enforced serfdom.
4. Tobacco-most profitable cash crop and main export that helped facilitate the economy in the colony.
5. St Mary's-location of the first settlement. It was a safer and healthier place than the malaria-filled Jamestown. Its proximity to the Potomac provided a water source, trade posts, and agricultural irrigation.
6. Catholicism-main religion and purpose for establishing colony as a safe place for them to practice their faith without persecution.
7. Sir Cecelius Calvert-son of George Calvert and the actual founder of the Maryland Colony.
8. 1634-year that the colony was founded.
9. Indentured Servitude- with the increase in tobacco plantations, more labor was needed to fulfill the rigorous needs. Society reflected the disparity between rich landowners and servants.
10. 1689-became royal company after Calvert family was toppled. The religious tolerance notable in the colony was soon repealed.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
1. John Winthrop-first governor of the colony and founder of the Puritan settlement.
2. Puritan religion-dominant faith in colony. Also the reason to settle to colony (in order to escape persecution from the Anglican Church). It was infused with the government and social life.
3. General Court-government set up in the colony that contained two houses composed of male church members. The House of Assistants and House of Deputies conducted local Bay Colony affairs.
4. Lumber-one of the main commodities and exports of the colony. The soil was unfavorable for farming resulting in another economic means.
5. Boston-main settlement of the Bay Colony which Winthrop used as the "model" for Puritan living and ideals.
6. Roger Williams-rebel of the Puritan church that attacked popular opinions that the government should control religious beliefs. Proceeded to form Rhode Island.
7. 1630-year the colony was founded.
8. Massachusetts Bay Company-organization behind settling the colony as a business venture but also a safe haven for Puritans.
9. Anne Hutchinson-challenged idea of predestination and was later expelled by the colony.
10. 1691-royal charter granted control of Plymouth and Maine to the Massachusetts colony. This increased Puritan reach and added more people to the colony with the largest population.