Computer science

hardware

processor speed

processor speed is probably the most important thing to look for when purchasing a computer. even if a computer has 5GB of RAM with a slow processor it wont get a lot done. The processor is like the brain of a PC, if you think slowly the answers and responses you give will be slow. If you like gaming, watching or streaming movies, and doing a lot at once then fast processor speeds are what you need. Computers with slow processors are likely to not last for a few years. Moderately fast processor speeds can last a little while longer, but really fast top of the line processors can go for quite some time before dying and becoming unusable.


Multi-core processor speed rates are pretty high. These are some of the best processors on the market. It is not just gamers that require fast processors, but those who process large image files (professional photography) and movies (film makers or film lovers).



1823 Baron Jons Jackob Berzelius silicon (Si), which today is the basic component of processors.

1903 Nikola Tesla patents electrical logic circuits called "gates" or "switches".

1947 John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley invent the first transistor at the Bell Laboratories on December 23, 1947.

1948 John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley patent the first transistor.

1956 John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley are awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for their work on the transistor.

1958 The first integrated circuit is first developed by Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor and Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments. The first IC was demonstrated on September 12, 1958.

1960 IBM develops the first automatic mass-production facility for transistors in New York.

1968 Intel Corporation is founded by Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore.

1969 Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) is founded on May 1, 1969.

1971 Intel with the help of Ted Hoff introduces the first microprocessor, the Intel 4004 on November 15, 1971. The 4004 had 2,300 transistors, performed 60,000 operations per second (OPS), addressed 640 bytes of memory, and cost $200.00.

1972 Intel introduces the 8008 processor on April 1, 1972.

1974 Intel's improved microprocessor chip is introduced April 1, 1974, the 8080 becomes a standard in the computer industry.

1976 Intel introduces the 8085 processor on March 1976.

1976 The Intel 8086 is introduced June 8, 1976.

1979 The Intel 8088 is released on June 1, 1979.

1979 The Motorola 68000, a 16/32-bit processor is released and is later chosen as the processor for the Apple Macintosh and Amiga computers.

1982 The Intel 80286 is introduced February 1, 1982.

1985 Intel introduces the first 80386 in October 1985.

1987 The SPARC processor is first introduced by Sun.

1988 Intel 80386SX is introduced.

1991 AMD introduces the AM386 microprocessor family in March.

1991 Intel introduces the Intel 486SX chip in April in efforts to help bring a lower-cost processor to the PC market selling for $258.00.

1992 Intel releases the 486DX2 chip March 2 with a clock doubling ability that generates higher operating speeds.

1993 Intel releases the Pentium Processor on March 22 1993. The processor is a 60 MHz processor, incorporates 3.1 million transistors and sells for $878.00.

1994 Intel releases the second generation of Intel Pentium processors on March 7, 1994.

1995 Intel introduces the Intel Pentium Pro in November.

1996 Intel announces the availability of the Pentium 150 MHz with 60MHz bus and 166 MHz with 66 MHz bus on January 4th.

1997 Intel Pentium II is introduced on May 7, 1997.

1999 Intel releases the Celeron 366 MHz and 400 MHz processors on January 4th.

1999 The Intel Pentium III 500 MHz is released on February 26, 1999.

1999 The Intel Pentium III 550 MHz is released on May 17, 1999.

1999 The Intel Pentium III 600 MHz is released on August 2, 1999.

1999 The Intel Pentium III 533B and 600B MHz is released on September 27, 1999.

1999 The Intel Pentium III Coppermine series is first introduced on October 25, 1999.

2000 On January 5 AMD releases the 800 MHz Athlon processor.

2000 Intel releases the Celeron 533 MHz with a 66 MHz bus processor on January 4th.

2000 Intel announces on August 28th that it will recall its 1.3 GHz Pentium III processors due to a glitch. Users with these processors should contact their vendors for additional information about the recall.

2001 On January 3 Intel releases the 800 MHz Celeron processor with a 100 MHz bus.

2001 On January 3 Intel releases the 1.3 GHz Pentium 4 processor.

2001 On October 9, 2001 AMD announces a new branding scheme. Instead of identifying processors by their clock speed the AMD XP will bear monikers of 1800+, 1700+, 1600+ and 1500+, with each lower model number representing a lower clock speed.

2002 Intel releases the Celeron 1.3 GHz with a 100 MHz bus and 256 kB of level 2 cache.

2003 Intel Pentium M is introduced in March.

2006 Intel releases the Core2 Duo Processor E6320 (4M Cache, 1.86 GHz, 1066 MHz FSB) April 22, 2006.

2006 Intel introduces the Intel Core 2 Duo processors with the Core2 Duo Processor E6300 (2M Cache, 1.86 GHz, 1066 MHz FSB) July 27, 2006.

2007 Intel releases the Core2 Duo Processor E4300 (2M Cache, 1.80 GHz, 800 MHz FSB) January 21, 2007.

2007 Intel releases the Core2 Duo Processor E4400 (2M Cache, 2.00 GHz, 800 MHz FSB) April 22, 2007.

2007 Intel releases the Core2 Duo Processor E4500 (2M Cache, 2.20 GHz, 800 MHz FSB) July 22, 2007.

2007 Intel releases the Core2 Duo Processor E4500 (2M Cache, 2.20 GHz, 800 MHz FSB) July 22, 2007.

2007 Intel releases the Core2 Duo Processor E4600 (2M Cache, 2.40 GHz, 800 MHz FSB) October 21, 2007.

2008 Intel releases the Core2 Duo Processor E4700 (2M Cache, 2.60 GHz, 800 MHz FSB) March 2, 2008.

2008 Intel releases the Core 2 Duo E7200 (3M Cache, 2.53 GHz, 1066 MHz FSB) on April 20, 2008.

2008 Intel releases the Core2 Duo Processor E7300 (3M Cache, 2.66 GHz, 1066 MHz FSB) August 10, 2008.

2008 Intel releases the Core2 Duo Processor E7400 (3M Cache, 2.80 GHz, 1066 MHz FSB) October 19, 2008.

2009 Intel releases the Core2 Duo Processor E7500 (3M Cache, 2.93 GHz, 1066 MHz FSB) January 18, 2009

2009 Intel releases the Core2 Duo Processor E7600 (3M Cache, 3.06 GHz, 1066 MHz FSB) May 31, 2009


Cores

Early computers were limited because there was no way to build reliable and high-speed memory. Magnetic core solved these problems and subsequently became the dominant form of computer memory for more than 20 years.


Core memory uses a 3-dimensional array of tiny ferrite rings to store data or programs. Each ring stores a single bit and is magnetized in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction, representing a “0” or a “1” respectively. The cores are magnetized by a current flowing in wires that are threaded through each core. The direction of the current determines the direction of the magnetization.


In 1953, Jay Forrester invented “coincident current addressing”, which made core memory practical. In this scheme, the current needed to magnetize the core is split between two wires (one horizontal, the other vertical). Only the core at the intersection of two electrified wires will change magnetization. In order to read a single core, a third wire is threaded through all the cores of a plane. When a core is magnetized to a “0,” a pulse occurs on this sense wire only if that core had been a “1” and not if it was already a “0.” This is destructive readout, since if it was a “1” it now needs to be rewritten. Consequently, it takes two cycles to read core memory, one to read the contents and another to reset it to its original state.


During the 1970s, computers moved into the home in the form of microprocessor-based personal computers and game systems. The introduction of the IBM PC in 1981 was the most important event of that decade, creating a standard that is still in use today. More user-friendly machines such as the Apple Macintosh (based on the Xerox Alto), combined with more sophisticated software, resulted in computers that were inexpensive and powerful, yet easy to use. Here you will see some of these machines, as well as robots, printers, and computer graphics technologies of the time.

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