By: Noelia Mestre

A Map of Time 🕰

1793- Chinese reject British requests for open trade. A decade after King George III lost the North American colonies, he received another rebuff, this one from China. The Chinese emperor Qianlong sharply rejected British requests for a less restricted trading relationship. But by 1912, just more than a century later, China's imperial state collapsed and they became dependent on the European world system.

1798- Napoleon invades Egypt. The Ottoman Empires own domains shrank considerably at the hands of Russian,British,Austrian, and French aggression. In 1798, Napoleans invasion of Egypt, which had long been a province of the Ottoman Empire, was a particularly stunning blow. When the French left, a virtually independent Egypt pursued a modernizing and empire-building program of its own and on one occasion came close to toppling the Ottoman Empire itself.

1830s- famine and rebellions in Japan. Crop failure lead to famine in Northern Japan which lead to widespread famine.

1838-1842- first Opium War in China. The treaty of Nanjing, which ended the war in 1842, largely on British terms, imposed numerous restrictions on Chinese sovereignty and opened five ports to European traders. Its provisions reflected the changed balance of global power that had emerged with Britain's industrial revolution. To the Chinese, that agreement represented the first of the unequal treaties that seriously eroded China's independence by the end of the century.

1838-1876- Tanzimat reforms in the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman reforms began in the late eighteenth century when Sultan Selim III sought to reorganize and update the army and to draw on European advisers and techniques. Then, in the several decades after 1839, more far-reaching reformist measures, known as Tanzimat (reorganization), took shape as the Ottoman leadership sought to provide the economic,social, and legal underpinnings for a strong and newly recentralized state.

1850-1864- Taiping uprising in China. It was a different kind of peasant upheaval. The leaders largely rejected of Christianity. The leading figure Hong Xiuquan, proclaimed himself the younger brother of Jesus, sent to cleanse the world. They called for the abolition of private property , a radical distribution of the land, end prostitution and opium smoking, and the organization of society into sexually segregated militaries camps of men and women.

1856-1858- second Opium War in China. Britain's victory in a second Opium War (1856-1858) was accompanied by the brutal vandalizing of the empowers exquisite summer palace outside Beijing and resulted in further humiliations. Still more ports were opened to foreign traders. Now those foreigners were allowed to travel freely and buy land in China, to preach Christianity under protection of Chinese authorities, and to patrol some of China's rivers.

1853- admiral Perry arrives in Japan Like China and the Ottoman empire, the island country of Japan confronted the aggressive power of the West durning the nineteenth century, most notably in the form of U.S. commodore Matthew Perry's "black ships," which steamed into Tokyo Bay in 1853 and forcefully demanded that this reclusive nation open up to more "normal" relations with the world.

1868-Meiji restoration in Japan That humiliating capitulation to the demands of the "foreign devils" further eroded support for the shogunate, triggered a breif civil war, and by 1868 led to a political takeover by a group of young samurai from southern Japan. This decisive turning point in Japan's history was known as the Meiji restoration, for the country's new rulers claimed that they were restoring to power the young emperor, then a fifteen-year-old boy whose throne name was Meiji, or Enlighted Rule. Despite his youth, he was regarded as the most recent link in a chain of descent that traced the origins of the imperial family back to the sun goddess Armaterasu. Having eliminated the shogunate, the patriotic young men who led the takeover soon made their goals clear-to save Japan from foreign domination not by futile resistance, but by a thorough transformation of Japanese society drawing on all that the modern West had to offer.

1894-1895 Sino Japanese war Conflict between Japan and China over Korea. it marked the emergence of Japan as a major world power and demonstrated the weaknesses of the Chinese empire. They both wanted supremacy in Korea.

1896- Ethiopian defeat of Italy preserves Ethiopias independence Ethiopia defeats Italy in the battle of Adwa. This signaled the decline of European colonialism in Africa. The Italians tried to swindle the country but greatly underestimated then.

1899-1901 Boxer Rebellion in China Led by militia organizations calling themeselves the Society of Righteous and Harmonius Fists, the "Boxers" killed numerous Europeans and Chinese Christians and laid siege to the foregin embassies in Beijing. Western powers and Japan imposed a huge payment on China as punishment.

1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War The Russo-Japanese war was fought over rival emperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.

1908- Young Turk takeover in Ottoman Empire Opposition to this revived despotism soon surfaced among both military and civilian elietes known as the Young Turks. Largely abandoning any reference to Islam, they advocated a military secular public life, were committed to thorough going modernization along European lines, and increasingly thought about the Ottoman Empire as a Turkish national state.

1910- Japan annexes Korea It was not an equal treaty between the two. The Korean Emperor handed over all power to Japan to rule the country.

1911- Chinese revolution; end Qing dynasty. A group of revolutionaries in Southern China led a successful revolt in China thus ending the imperial system. and replacing it with the Republic of China.