Colonies

Nick McIntosh

Jamestown

  • the first permanent English settlement in the Americas.
  • Established by the Virginia Company of London as "James Fort" on May 14, 1607
  • Jamestown served as the capital of the colony for 83 years, from 1616 until 1699.
  • In 1699, the capital was relocated from Jamestown to what is today Williamsburg, after which Jamestown ceased to exist as a settlement, existing today only as an archaeological site.
  • During what became known as the "Starving Time" in 1609–1610, over 80% of the colonists perished, and the island was briefly abandoned that spring.
  • The three ships that the settlers took to Jamestown were the Susan Constant, Discovery, and Godspeed.
  • Jamestown had an extremely high mortality rate. This was due to disease, gross mismanagement, and later Native American raids.
  • Jamestown had a House of Burgesses established in 1619 that ruled the colony.
  • The survival of Jamestown remained in question for over ten years as the settlers were not willing to work together and plant crops.
  • A generation later, during Bacon`s Rebellion in 1676, Jamestown was burned, eventually to be rebuilt.


Massachusetts Bay

  • Led by John Winthrop, the group formed the Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • They settled in New England in 1630.
  • These Puritans wanted to freely practice their religious beliefs in their new home.
  • The soil was rocky, and winters could be harsh, but there were also vast forests and clean water.
  • The winter cold killed insects and germs that caused disease
  • situated around the present-day cities of Salem and Boston
  • The colony was economically successful, engaging in trade with England and the West Indies.
  • In the early years of the colony, it was highly dependent on the import of staples from England, and was supported by the investments of a number of wealthy immigrants.
  • the land was not as suitable for agriculture as that of other colonies like Virginia, where large plantations could be established.
  • Major rivers included the Charles and Merrimack, as well as a portion of the Connecticut River, which was used to transport furs and timbers to Long Island Sound.

Pennsylvania

  • Pennsylvania means"Penn's forest".
  • the population of Pennsylvania was 638 in 1638.

  • William Penn founded Pennsylvania for religious reasons.
  • Penn made a Constitution for Pennsylvania in 1682 which explained the government of Pennsylvania.
  • William Penn founded Pennsylvania in 1638.

  • The colonial government, established in 1682 by Penn's Frame of Government, consisted of an appointed Governor, the proprietor (Penn), a 72-member Provincial Council, and a larger General Assembly.
  • William Penn and his fellow Quakers heavily imprinted their religious values on the early Pennsylvanian government.
  • The Charter of Privileges mandated fair dealings with Native Americans.
  • As the colony grew, colonists and British military forces came into conflict with Natives in the Western half of the state.
  • Until the French and Indian War Pennsylvania had no military, few taxes and no public debt.


Maryland

  • Maryland lies at the center of the Eastern Seaboard
  • In 1608, Capt. John Smith explored Chesapeake Bay.
  • Religious freedom, granted all Christians in the Toleration Act passed by the Maryland assembly in 1649, was ended by a Puritan revolt, 1654–1658.
  • From 1763 to 1767, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon surveyed Maryland`s northern boundary line with Pennsylvania.
  • In 1814, during the British attempt to capture Baltimore.
  • During the Civil War, Maryland was a slave state but remained in the Union.
  • Charles I granted a royal charter for Maryland to Cecil Calvert, Lord Baltimore, in 1632, and English settlers, many of whom were Roman Catholic, landed on St. Clement's (now Blakistone) Island in 1634.
  • King Charles I of England specified that the name for the new colony was to be called Maryland in honor of his wife, Queen Henrietta Maria.
  • Not dominated by a specific religion which gave way to religious freedom for Baptists, Catholics, Anglicans and others.
  • main exports were Tobacco, cotton, rice, indigo (dye), lumber, furs, farm products


Georgia

  • founded in 1732 by James Oglethorpe and others
  • Oglethorpe extended freedom of religion to all Christians except Catholics.
  • As the colony's governor, Oglethorpe banned slavery and alcohol.
  • After Oglethorpe left his post 12 years later to return to England, the colonists immediately lifted the ban on alcohol. Three years following, in 1749, Georgia allowed slaves.
  • The colonists hoped to make silk Georgia's chief product, because the colony's plentiful mulberry trees were a food staple of the silkworm.
  • The venture failed, and rice, indigo, lumber and fur became Georgia's primary exports.
  • It was the last of the thirteen original colonies established by Great Britain in what later became the United States.
  • colonists weren't allowed to own more than 50 acres (0.20 km2) of land.
  • Oglethorpe finally bent the rules and the colony started to grow much faster.
  • One plan had called for Georgia to be created to be a safe home for debtors. However, this purpose was never fulfilled and 116 men, women, and children were selected to become the original colonists.