Fabric Construction


Steps of Fabric Construction

  1. Fibers are twisted together and Spun into yarn.
  2. Yarns are either woven or knitted together to form fabric.
  3. Fabric is colored by dying or printing being added to the fabric.
  4. A finish is applied to make fabric suitable for use and to improve appearance.

Words To Know...

  1. Grain: direction of lengthwise and crosswise yarns in a woven fabric
  2. Bias: Diagonal gran of a fabric. (Provides greatest stretch in fabric).
  3. Shed: Gap caused by raising alternate threads.
  4. Warp Yarns: Run lengthwise in woven fabric.
  5. Weft Yarns: Run crosswise in woven fabric.
  6. Gauge: The number of stitches or loops, per inch in a knitted fabric.


- The process of interlacing one or more sets of yarn at rights angles in a loom.

Types of Weaving


- Looping yarns together

Types of Knitting

Additional Fabric Construction Methods

Finishing the Fabric

- By applying colors, designs, or surface treatments that change the look, feel, or performance of fabrics


  1. Mechanical: finishes applied mechanically rather than chemically.

  • Effect size and appearance
  • Ex: Glazing, embossing, cutting.

  1. Chemical: finishes that become part of the fabric through chemical reaction.

  • Affect performance
  • Ex: flame resistant, stain resistant, waterproof, preshrunk

Types of Finish