Comissioner Lin Zexu
Lin Zexu (1785-1850) was the son of a rather poor but scholarly father, who had never achieved a official position. Lin, however, excelled academically, passing the highest level examinations and then rising rapidly in the ranks kf China's bureaucracy. He died leading Chinese scholar and official of the Qing Dynasty, known for his role in the events leading up to the first Opium War (1839–42) between Britain and China. He was a proponent of the revitalization of traditional Chinese thought and institutions, a movement that became known as the self-strengthening movement.
"The Sick Man of Europe"
The Young Ottomans were a secret society established in 1865 by a group of Ottoman Turkish intellectuals who were dissatisfied with the Tanzimat reforms in the Ottoman Empire, which they believed did not go far enough.