1750-1900's

Creek WHAP

Taiping Uprising

Its leaders largely rejected Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism, they found their primary belief from Christianity. The leading figure Hong Xiuquan (1814-1864) proclaimed himself the younger brother of Jesus, sent to cleanse the world of demons and to establish a "heavenly kingdom of great peace." The leaders did not restore an idealized Chinese society but they called for more a revolutionary change; they called for the abolition of private property, a radical redistribution of land, the end of prostitution and opium smoking, and the organization of society into sexually segregated military camps of men and women.

Opium Wars

Opium had long been used on small scale as a drinkable medicine. It did not become a serious problem until the late eighteenth century, when the British began to use opium, grown and processed in India, to cover their persistent trade imbalance with China. Because opium importation was illegal, it had to be smuggled into China. China found itself with a lot of addicts and it was followed by a debate (1836) on whether it should be legalized or whether to crack down on its use--the emperor decided on putting a end to it. The debate was led by Commissioner Lin Zexu who was against opium use as a "drug czar." The British were offended by the seizure of their property with opium and they sent a large navy expedition to China and they were determined to end the restrictive conditions. Still after the second Oium War (1856-1858) still more ports were opened to foreign traders. Now those foreigners were allowed to travel freely and buy land in China, to preach Christianity under the protection of Chinese authorities, and to patrol some of China's rivers. The Chinese were forbidden to use the character for "barbarians" to refer to the British in official documents.

Boxer Uprising

The Boxer Rebellion officially supported peasant uprising of 1900 that attempted to drive all foreigners from China. "Boxers" was a name that foreigners gave to a Chinese secret society known as the "Righteous and Harmonious Fists." The group practiced certain boxing and calisthenic rituals in the belief that this made them invulnerable.
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Comissioner Lin Zexu

Lin Zexu (1785-1850) was the son of a rather poor but scholarly father, who had never achieved a official position. Lin, however, excelled academically, passing the highest level examinations and then rising rapidly in the ranks kf China's bureaucracy. He died leading Chinese scholar and official of the Qing Dynasty, known for his role in the events leading up to the first Opium War (1839–42) between Britain and China. He was a proponent of the revitalization of traditional Chinese thought and institutions, a movement that became known as the self-strengthening movement.

Chinese Revolution of 1911

In October of 1911, a group of revolutionaries in southern China led a successful revolt against the Qing Dynasty, establishing in its place the Republic of China and ending the imperial system.

"The Sick Man of Europe"

The label of "Sick Man of Europe" is given to a European Country experiencing a time of economic difficulty or impoverishment. The term was first used in the mid-19th century to describe the Ottoman Empire, but has since been applied at one time or another to nearly every other major country in Europe.

Tanzimat

The Tanzimat were a series of reforms in the Ottoman Empire that brought the culture, education, religion and society more in the line with Europe and the United States and western ways

Young Ottomans

The Young Ottomans were a secret society established in 1865 by a group of Ottoman Turkish intellectuals who were dissatisfied with the Tanzimat reforms in the Ottoman Empire, which they believed did not go far enough.

Sultan Abd al-Hamid II

Sultan Abdulhamid II (r. 1876-1909) was born in Istanbul on the 21st of September, 1842. His father is Sultan Abdul Medjid and his mother is Tir-i Mujgan Kadin Efendi. He ruled the Ottomans for 33 years. Abdulhamid was a religious, gracious and a generous man. Ge accepted a constitution and an eleceted parliament but not for long. Under the pressure of war with Russia, the Sultan soon suspended the reforms and reverted the claim that he was the caliph, succesor to the Prophet, and the protector of Muslims everywhere.

Young Turks

Largely abondoning any reference to Islam, they advcated a militiantly secular public life, were commited to thoroughgoing modernization along Europeans lines, and increasingly thought about about the Ottoman Empire as a Turkish national state. A military coup in 1908 allowed the Young Turks to exercise real power. They pushed for a radical secularization of schools, courts, and law codes. They also opened modern schools for women, including access to Istanbul University; restricted polygamy; and permitted women to obtain divorces in some nations.