The Nervous and Endocrine System

By Shuwen Maxwell, Ben Chiappa and Morgan Blake

Frontal lobe

This is the frontal part of the brain. It is involved in desision making, problem solving and general personality. Emotions and speech are also involved.

Cerebellum

The cerebellum is situated in the area of the hindbrain. It controls the body's motor movement. It also controls balance. The cerebellum contains hundreds of millions of neurons for processing data.

Brainstem

The brainstem is found at the top of the vertebral column and at the base of the cerebellum, It regulates breathing and heartrate.
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Sensory and Motor Neurones

Sensory neurons are thought to be responsible for converting external stimuli into internal stimuli. They are activated by sensory input such as sight, hearing and touch. They transfer projections into the nervous system which gives information.

Motor neuron is the name given to neurons that live in the central nervous system. They project their axons outside the CNS and directly or indirectly control muscles. Both motor and sensory neurons travel through the brainstem.

Body Receptors

Nose - Senses smells by the olfactory receptors

Eyes - Detects light, which can vary in brightness and colour

Skin - The nervous system detects pressure, which sends a message to the brain

Ears - Detects the vibration of movement in the air, which is heard as sound

Mouth - Senses taste, texture, temperature and capsaicin (the active ingredient in chilli peppers)

How the Nervous System Works

The nervous system works by sending signals to other parts of the body. These functions of the nervous system are done by the actions of millions of nerve cells called neurons, which are the basic functioning cells of the nervous system. Each neuron generates many specialized connections called synapses, with other neurons and other cells in the body. These cells gather and process infomation and also generates proper response signals to every part of the body.

Six Glands of the Endocrine System

Pituitary: Found at the base of the forebrain. It regulates the growth of bones and tissue. Produces growth hormone.

Thyroid: In the lower larynx. Regulates rate of growth and metabolism. Produces anti-diuretic hormone.

Adrenal: Above the kidney, it assists in converting proteins to sugar. Produces cortisone hormone.

Pancreas: It’s a double gland which regulates sugar metabolism. Too little insulin leads to high sugar level in blood. Produces insulin.

Ovary: Found in the walls of the pelvis. It assists of the development of sexual characters. Produces estrogen.

Testis: Below the scrotum. Produces sperm and testosterone.

How the Encocrine System Works

The endocrine system is the system that is in total control of the changes in our body that take place over a long period in time. Things such as growth and development, tissue functions, metabolism, sexual functions and reproductive processes are all influenced by the endocrine system.