Virus vs. Cell

Serena Bharia and Shaista Tejani

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Virus Reprduction

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The Lytic Cycle

One of the ways viruses reproduce is through the lytic cycle. In this cycle, a virus enters its host cell and makes thousands to millions of copies of itself within just a few hours and weakens the cell wall so that the cell can lyse(burst open) releasing the viruses and destroying the host cell. Some viruses that reproduce via the lytic cycle are influenza and rabies.
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The Lysogenic Cycle

The lysogenic cycle is the second way a virus can reproduce. In the lysogenic cycle, when the virus enters the host cell it does not replicate right away. Instead, it mixes its genetic material with the host cell's genetic material. In this way when the host cell replicates, the viral genetic material gets copied as well. These cells keep multiplying over time. They multiply much slower than in the lytic cycle. Later on, some environmental signal will stir these cells and they will take over. Anytime during the lysogenic cycle the virus can switch to the lytic cycle. Some viruses that reproduce via the lysogenic cycle are HIV and herpes.
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Questions

1.) The typical structure of a virus is made up of genetic material, either DNA or RNA(never both) a protein coat, caspid, nuclear envelope, and protein coat. Biomolecules you can find in a virus are proteins and nucleic acids(DNA or RNA).


2.) Viruses can get entry into a cell many ways. They can enter through endocytosis, when the virus tricks the host cell into thinking it is harmless so the membrane lets the virus in. Another way is membrane fusion, which is when the virus attaches to the host cell and fuses with the membrane. Lastly, a virus can get in through genetic injection. This is when the virus attaches to the cell and injects its DNA/RNA into the cell.


3.) Tobacco plants can not be infected with the ebola virus because they have a unique trait where they can latch on to the virus and immediately activate an immune response against it.


4.) HIV: T-helper cells

Ebola: Fibroblasts of any type, most commonly mononuclear phagocytes

Marburg: Endothelial cells

Measles: Polarized Epithelial cells

Herpes: Neuronal and skin cells


5.) If you have the flu, your doctor will not provide you with antibiotics because antibiotics are medications that fight infections caused by bacteria, but the flu is caused by a virus. Taking antibiotics when you have a virus can hurt you instead of making you better.


6.) A person infected with a virus like HIV may not show symptoms because HIV reproduces via the lysogenic cycle. In this cycle a virus spreads through its host VERY slowly. The host can have a virus like HIV and not exhibit symptoms or know for months to years.