Reconstruction Era

Andrew Johnson

Andrew Johnson was the Vice President at the time of Abraham Lincoln's assassination. This meant that at the time of the assassination, he became the seventeenth president of the United States. Andrew became president right as the Civil War was concluding. When he became president, he quickly wanted to restore the states who had succeeded. Although he had many good intensions in his plan, it didn't include protecting the former slaves. Eventually, he became impeached by the House of Representatives. He was the first president to become impeached in America.

Ulysses S. Grant

Before becoming president, Ulysses S. Grant led the Union armies to victory over the Confederacy. He became the eighteenth president in 1869. He was elected twice and led the Radical Republicans in the attempt to remove slavery, protect the citizenship of African-Americans, and defeat the Ku Klux Klan. Throughout his presidency, he faced many challenges including charges and federal corruption. Ulysses S. Grant was in office until 1877.

Fifteenth Amendment

The fifteenth amendment gave African-Americans the right to vote. It declared that "right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude." The amendment was ratified in 1870, but was really realized until later on. Even though the amendment was passed, the Southern states were able to keep many of the African- Americans from voting. They did this by literacy tests, poll taxes, and the grandfather clause.

Freedman's Bureau

The Freedman's Bureau was established in 1865 and was initiated by Abraham Lincoln. This bureau was important in the early stages of Reconstruction. It aided the slaves that had been freed in the South. It helped them learn to read and write. It encouraged blacks to gain employment and to work with their employers. It mainly helped African-Americans in the rough times due to the Black Codes.