By Anthony V. And Sophia G.

Intro to Phoenicia

Phoenicia was an ancient civilization that lasted from 1550 to 300 BCE, and was on the western coastal part and centered on the coastline of modern day Lebanon ,Tartus , and Syria.( They had built a wall so they were separated from the water).

Cities, Social Structure, and Religion

Cities: Phoenician cities were Tyre,which was the Capitol from 1000 BCE to 333 BCE also provided space and shelter for shipping,and Byblos wich is one of the oldest inhabited cities in the world. Other important cities were Tripoli in present day Libya, and Cathrage in present day Tunisia.

Social structure:They people called themselves Phoenicians based on the area they settled in. Phoenicia was also the home of a large number of Caananities mentioned in the bible.the main occupations were Sailors, Merchants,and Craftsmen. The Phoenician people were ruled under the power of a king.

Religion: The Phoenicians were said to have worshipped deities which they called Baal(lords) and Baalats(goddesses) making them polytheistic.The Phoenicians had rituals such as sacrificing animals and their children at stone altars.

Government, System of Writing, and Technology

Government: Artaxerxes III was the first king and the Achaemenid dynasty was the king of Persia during 359/358–338 BCE. Although he was known as a bloodthirsty ruler, he managed to overthrow the rebellions throughout the Persian Empire and unite its territories under a strong centralized government. A formidable trade power during the first millennium BCE, Phoenicia is also where the phonetic alphabet originated.

System of writing:The Phoenicians transmitted the alphabet to the Greek world. The Phoenician language was Semitic, but it is presumed that contact with Phoenicians led Greek speakers to adopt the alphabet for their own use and to their own language. transmitted the alphabet to the Greek world.

Technology:Build ships with a keeled hull. This allowed them to sail the open seas, and as a result, the Phoenicians developed a flourishing sea trade.


Picture 1: The vase and metal knife were found in the ancient city of Byblos. Phoenicians traded glass, dyes, and textiles with Egypt,for metals like the ones used in these artifacts

Picture 2: this is a tomb stone or sarcophagus found in the ancient city of Sidon.

Picture 3: a Phoenician ship that was carved into what was left of a sarcophagus

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Phoenician alphabet(primary resource)

The Phoenician alphabet was the first alphabet that began the development of the alphabet in western civilization. It was first adopted by the Greeks and Romans who expanded it from its original 22 letters.


The Phoenicians were, great sailors, craftsmen, and traders among the ancient world. They revolutionized dyes, our alphabet today , and were one of the first people of the ancient world to start the idea of colonization and exploring