Cells and Organelles

By- Maddison Rhodes

The Cell Membrane

The cell membrane controls what goes in and out of the cell. It is the outer lining of the animal cell and the inner lining, next to the cell wall, in a plant cell.

The cell wall

The cell wall is only located in a plant cell, and protects the cell from injury. The cell wall also maintains the cell's shape. When the vacuole collects water, and presses up against the cell wall, The pressure helps the cell wall determine the cell's shape.

The vacuole.

The vacuole is like a container inside the cell, and stores water and nutrients. The vacuole helps with the plants structure. If the vacuole is low on water, the plant droops. If the vacuole is full of water, the plant maintains it's normal shape.

The cytoplasm

The cytoplasm is the fluid that holds all of the organelles in place. The cytoplasm also helps make sure that the cell does not shrink, and retains it's normal cell shape. Cytoplasm also holds many important molecules and ribosomes.

The ribosomes

The ribosomes can be found on the E.R. (Endoplasmic Reticulum) or floating around in the Cytoplasm. The ribosomes on the E.R. make protein that either stay in the cell or leave to cell.

The Endoplasmic Reticulum

The E.R. Follow directions from the nucleus and make proteins that the cell needs. Not only does the Endoplasmic Reticulum produce the proteins, but they also package the proteins to go to the Golgi Apparatus, or go to other cells.

The Golgi Apparatus

The main job of the Golgi Apparatus is to package the proteins into vesicles. The golgi apparatus then ships the vesicles off to different parts of the cell, or some even out of the cell.

The Mitochondria

The mitochondria are small organelles in the cell, they create ATP, Which is like the fuel helping the whole cell.

Lysosomes & Peroxisomes

These organelles break down waste and clear the cell of poisons. These organelles also store any materials the cell can use.

Nucleus

The nucleus is like the brain of the cell. It is the center of everything, and 'gives orders' to the other organelles. The nucleus also stores all DNA and genes in a cell.

The Cell Theory

1. All Living organisms are composed of cells
2. The cell is the basic unit of life
3. All cells come from other existing cells.

The body organization.

The organization is starting with a cell, then a Tissue, next the organ, then the organ system, and finally the organism.

Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes are two different types of cells. Prokaryotes do not have a nucleus, or membrane based organelles. Eukaryotes do have membrane based organelles.
Examples of Prokaryote cells: Bacteria, Archaea
Examples of Eukaryote cells: Plants, Animals.