Effective Reading & Writing Inst.

Kelley Regan and Sheri Berkeley

Presenter: Amber Best-Thibault Section C Thursday 11, 2016

Regan, K., & Berkeley, S. (2011). Effective Reading and Writing Instruction: A Focus on Modeling. Intervention in School and Clinic, 47(276). Retrieved from

http://isc.sagepub.com/content/47/5/276

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A Focus on Modeling

Modeling everything for your students is very important. It should be used in Reading and Writing Instruction in order for students to accurately complete the strategies and tasks to meet teacher expectations. There are three questions to ask while modeling:

1. Did I model when to use the strategy and why?

2. Did I explicitly model how to use all of the strategy steps?

3. Did I model how to be flexible in strategy selection and application?

Be Specific, Be Explicit, and Be Flexible

Students need to know why they are using a strategy before beginning. It needs to be relevant to them. To do this, model when the strategy is most helpful and why it is the best way to get the result. They also need to know when in the lesson it should be used. For example, is it done before, during, or after the reading. For writing, is it a prewriting or during writing strategy.


The strategy needs to be expressed clearly and each step needs to be modeled. As a teacher you cannot expect the students to just know what they need to do. Each step needs to be drawn out for them. The teacher needs to show them every detail and every expectation of how to succeed in the task.


The students need to know that there are multiple strategies when it comes to getting an outcome. The students need to know how to choose the correct strategy for different situations. The process of choosing the right strategy needs to be modeled for the students so they know what to do when it is their turn to do it on their own.

Modeling is an Easy Step to Successful Instruction!

Modeling Each Step Is Crucial to All Instruction

Teachers need to provide:



  • Expectations
  • Accurate Modeling
  • Guided practice
  • Self reinforcement
  • Teacher Reinforcement
  • Independent Practice

Why is this important?

Students are in the classroom to learn. To do this, modeling reaches all types of learners. The visual learners see it, the audio learners can hear the instructions, kinesthetic learners have the guided practice to get the feel of it, and for others there should be written expectations as well. Just like with any other subject throughout the day, reading and writing expectations need to be clear to all students. The most effective way to do this is to model it for the students. Students are able to make meaningful cognitive connections when there is high, quality teacher support.

How Can I Use Modeling in the Classroom?

When I move into my own classroom I hope to model every single activity and expectation. In the article, it states multiple times that it is important to state the relevance and why modeling and all the single steps is important to them in the future. If the students are just seeing the information they may forget it, but if they are actually performing there is a better chance of them retaining the information. So no matter how time consuming modeling might be, I feel it is an important step in teaching the students.


With my focus in special education I think modeling is important as well for students with LD and other disabilities. Within this article it mentioned how modeling is beneficial for all students including LD students. This I believe is true. Students with LD may struggle with reading and writing, but with modeling it shows them and provides them with steps to break it down. Also for students with ADHD or other disabilities that effect their attention span, hands on activities keep them focused and they may retain the information easier.


This article also states the importance of self-statements, referred to as "strategy implementation". This was shown as the teacher complimenting themselves and modeling how to give positive personal feedback. In my opinion, as a teacher I would prefer to model how to give each other feedback. This can done with revising or group share. This is important to create a positive classroom environment. Being able to reinforce yourself is important, but I believe this will come once the modeling has been done properly and the "lightbulb lights up".



There are strategies and tools available to make modeling differentiated for each lesson. There are 3 examples below:

Teacher Modeling (Erin Weber).wmv
Resource on Modeling as a Teaching Strategy

This website describes multiple types of modeling and when each should be used in the classroom. They also include what makes each strategy unique and why they are important.

Some Questions to Think About?

1. When modeling in a classroom, what are some important strategies to remember? How would you implement them in the classroom?


2. Why is modeling more beneficial than just handing them an instruction sheet?


3. When you were in school, what are some examples of modeling your teacher did? Do you think this improved your experience at school or not? Explain.