Presidential Enrichment Project

By: Holly Thompson

George Washington

Judiciary Act, 1989- This was a United States federal statute adopted on September 24, 1789, in the first session of the First United States Congress. It established the federal judiciary of the United States.


Whiskey Rebellion, 1791 - Whiskey Insurrection, was a tax protest in the United States beginning in 1791, during the presidency of George Washington. The so-called "whiskey tax" was the first tax imposed on a domestic product by the newly formed federal government.


Farewell Address, 1796- George Washington's Farewell Address is a letter written by the first American President, George Washington, to "The People of the United States of America". "The Address of General Washington To The People of The United States on his declining of the Presidency of the United States," the letter was almost immediately reprinted in newspapers across the country and later in a pamphlet form.

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George Washington

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Judiciary Act of 1789

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Whiskey Rebellion of 1799

George Washington's Farewell Address

George Washington's FareWell Address

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John Adams

XYZ Affair, 1797- This was a political and diplomatic episode in 1797 and 1798, early in the administration of John Adams, involving a confrontation between the United States and Republican France that led to an undeclared war called the Quasi-War.


Alien and Sedition Act, 1798-

The Alien and Sedition Acts were four bills that were passed by the Federalists in the 5th United States Congress and signed into law by President John Adams in 1798, the result of the French Revolution and during an undeclared naval war with France, later known as the Quasi-War.


Naturalization Act, 1798- This act increased the period necessary for immigrants to become naturalized citizens in the United States from 5 to 14 years.

The XYZ Affair

The XYZ Affair

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Alien and Sedition Act of 1798

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Naturalization Act of 1798

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Thomas Jefferson

John Marshall Court Decision on Marbury v. Madison, 1803- Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. 137, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court formed the basis for the exercise of judicial review in the United States under Article III of the Constitution.


Louisiana Purchase, 1803- The Louisiana Purchase was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory by the United States from France in 1803. The U.S. paid fifty million francs and a cancellation of debts worth eighteen million francs for a total of sixty-eight million francs which averages to less than three cents per acre.



Embargo Act, 1807- The Embargo Act of 1807 was a general Embargo that made any and all exports from the United States illegal. It was sponsored by President Thomas Jefferson and enacted by Congress. The goal was to force Britain and France to respect American rights during the Napoleonic Wars.

Judicial Review: Crash Course Government and Politics #21

John Marshall Court Decision: Marbury v. Madison

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James Madison

Acquisition of Florida to Spain, 1819- Spain's hold on Florida was tenuous in the years after American independence, and numerous boundary disputes developed with the United States. In 1819, after years of negotiations, Secretary of State John Quincy Adams achieved a diplomatic coup with the signing of the Florida Purchase Treaty, which officially put Florida into U.S. hands at no cost beyond the U.S. assumption of some $5 million of claims by U.S. citizens against Spain. Formal U.S. occupation began in 1821, and General Andrew Jackson, the hero of the War of 1812, was appointed military governor. Florida was organized as a U.S. territory in 1822 and was admitted into the Union as a slave state in 1845.


Missouri Compromise, 1820- The Missouri Compromise was a United States federal statute devised by Henry Clay. It regulated slavery in the country's western territories by prohibiting the practice in the former Louisiana Territory north of the parallel 36'30' north, except within the boundaries of the proposed state of Missouri.


Monroe Doctrine, 1823- The Monroe Doctrine was a U.S. foreign policy regarding domination of the American Continent in 1823. It stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression, requiring U.S. intervention.

Acquisition of Florida

Acquisition of Florida from Spain, 1819

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Monroe Doctrine, 1823

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Andrew Jackson

Jacksonian Democracy- Jacksonian democracy is the political movement during the Second Party System toward greater democracy for the common man symbolized by American politician Andrew Jackson and his supporters.


The 2nd Bank of the US(BUS)-due to expire in 1836- The Second Bank of the United States, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was the second federally authorized Hamiltonian National Bank in the United States during its 20-year charter from February 1816 to January 1836.


Indian Removal Act of 1830- The Indian Removal Act was passed by Congress on May 28, 1830, during the presidency of Andrew Jackson. The law authorized the president to negotiate with southern Indian tribes for their removal to federal territory west of the Mississippi River in exchange for their ancestral homelands.


Trail of Tears, 1830- The Trail of Tears was a series of forced reconlations of Native American nations in the United States following the Indian Removal Act of 1830. The relocated people suffered from exposure, disease, and starvation while en route, and more than ten thousand died before reaching their various destinations.


Ordinance of Nullification, 1832- The Ordinance of Nullification declared the Tariff of 1828 and 1832 null and void within the state borders of South Carolina. It began the Nullification Crisis. Passed by a state convention on November 24, 1832, it led, on December 10, to President Andrew Jackson's proclamation against South Carolina, the Nullification Proclamation of 1832, which sent a naval flotilla and a threat of sending government ground troops to enforce the tariffs. In the face of the military threat, and following a Congressional revision of the tariff, South Carolina repealed the ordinance.

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Jacksonian Democracy

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2nd National Bank

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Indian Removal Act

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Trail of Tears

Ordinance of Nullification

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James K. Polk

Manifest Destiny- A term for the attitude prevalent during the 19th century period of American expansion that the United States not only could, but was destined to, stretch from coast to coast. This attitude helped fuel western settlement, Native American removal and war with Mexico.


Texas becomes a State, 1845- In 1845, the Republic of Texas was annexed to the United States of America, becoming the 28th U.S. state. Border disputes between the new state and Mexico, which had never recognized Texas independence and still considered the area a renegade Mexican state, led to the Mexican–American War (1846–1848).


Oregon boundary Settled, 1846- The Oregon Treaty is a treaty between the United Kingdom and the United States that was signed on June 15, 1846, in Washington, DC Signed under the presidency of James K. Polk, the treaty brought an end to the Oregon boundary dispute by settling competing American and British claims to the Oregon Country; the area had been jointly occupied by both Britain and the U.S. since the Treaty of 1818.


"Fifty Four Forty or Flight."- Polk called for expansion that included Texas, California, and the entire Oregon territory. The northern boundary of Oregon was the latitude line of 54 degrees, 40 minutes. "Fifty-four forty or fight!" was the popular slogan that led Polk to victory against all odds.


Mexican War, 1846-1848- A war between the U.S. and Mexico spanned the period from spring 1846 to fall 1847. The war was initiated by the United States and resulted in Mexico's defeat and the loss of approximately half of its national territory in the north.


Treaty of Guadelupe-Hidalgo, 1848- The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (Tratado deGuadalupe Hidalgo in Spanish), officially entitled theTreaty of Peace, Friendship, Limits and Settlement between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic, is the peace treaty signed on February 2, 1848.

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Manifest Destiny

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Texas becomes a State, 1845

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Oregon Boundary Settled, 1846

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"Fifty Four Forty or Flight."

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Mexican War, 1846-1848

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848

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Franklin Pierce, 1853-1857

Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854- The Kansas-Nebrask Act was an 1854 bill that mandated “popular sovereignty”–allowing settlers of a territory to decide whether slavery would be allowed within a new state’s borders.


Popular Sovereignty- Popular sovereignty or the sovereignty of the people's rule is the principle that the authority of a state and its government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives (Rule by the People), who are the source of all political power.


Underground Railroad- The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses used by 19th-century enslaved people of African descent in the United States in efforts to escape to free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause.


Bleeding Kansas- Bleeding Kansas, Bloody Kansas or the Border War was a series of violent political confrontations in the United States involving anti-slavery Free-Staters and pro-slavery "Border Ruffian" elements in Kansas between 1854 and 1861.

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Kansas-Nebraska Act

Popular Sovereignty

Popular Sovereignty

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Underground Railroad

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Bleeding Kansas

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Abraham Lincoln, 1861-1865

South Carolina Scedes- The Civil War began in South Carolina. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina became the first state to declare its secession from the Union. The first shots of the Civil War (January 9, 1861) were fired in Charleston by its Citadel cadets upon a civilian merchant ship, the Star of the West, bringing supplies to the beleaguered U.S. garrison at Fort Sumter.


Emancipation Proclamation, 1863-
The Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, as the nation approached its third year of bloody civil war. The proclamation declared "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free."


Homestead Act, 1862- The Homestead Act, enacted during the Civil War in 1862, provided that any adult citizen, or intended citizen, who had never borne arms against the U.S. government could claim 160 acres of surveyed government land.

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History in Five: Abraham Lincoln and the Emancipation Proclamation
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Andrew Johnson, 1865-1877

13th Amendment, 1865- The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. In Congress, it was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, and by the House on January 31, 1865.

14th Amendment, 1868-

The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments. The amendment addresses citizenship rights and equal protection of the laws, and was proposed in response to issues related to former slaves following the American Civil War.

Reconstruction Act, 1867-

After the end of the American Civil War, as part of the on-going process of Reconstruction, the United States Congress passed four statutes known as Reconstruction Acts.

Impeachment Trial, 1868- The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson, who became the 17th President of the United States after Abraham Lincolnwas assassinated, was one of the more dramatic events in the political life of the United States during Reconstruction. The first impeachment (which ultimately ended in the first acquittal) of a sitting United States president, it was the culmination of a lengthy political battle between the Southern Democrat Johnson and the Republicans.

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13th Amendment

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14th Amendment

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Reconstruction Act

The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson
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Grover Cleveland (1885-1897)

Knights of Labor, 1886- officially Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor, was the largest and one of the most important American labor organizations of the 1880s. Its most important leader was Terence V. Powderly. The Knights promoted the social and cultural uplift of the workingman, rejected socialism and anarchism, demanded the eight-hour day, and promoted the producers ethic of republicanism.


Haymarket Riot, 1886- The Haymarket affair (also known as the Haymarket massacre or Haymarket riot) was the aftermath of a bombing that took place at a labor demonstration on Tuesday May 4, 1886, at Haymarket Square in Chicago.


Interstate Commerce Act, 1887- The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 is a United States federal law that was designed to regulate the railroad industry, particularly its monopolistic practices.[1] The Act required that railroad rates be "reasonable and just," but did not empower the government to fix specific rates. It also required that railroads publicize shipping rates and prohibited short haul or long haul fare discrimination, a form of price discrimination against smaller markets, particularly farmers.


Panic of 1893- One of the causes for the panic of 1893 can be traced back to Argentina. Investment was encouraged by the Argentine agent bank, Baring Brothers. However, the failure of the 1890 wheat crop and a coup in Buenos Aires ended further investments. Because European investors were concerned that these problems might spread, they started a run on gold in the U.S. Treasury, since it was comparatively simple for them to cash in their dollar investments for exportable gold.


Pullman Strike, 1894- The Pullman Strike was a nationwide railroad strike in the United States on May 11, 1894. It pitted the American Railway Union (ARU) against the Pullman Company, the main railroads, and the federal government of the United States under President Grover Cleveland.


American Federation of Labor, 1886- The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was a national federation of labor unions in the United States. It was founded inColumbus, Ohio, in May 1886 by an alliance of craft unions disaffected from the Knights of Labor, a national labor association.Samuel Gompers of the Cigar Makers' International Union was elected president of the Federation at its founding convention and was reelected every year except one until his death in 1924.

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Knights of Labor

Drunk History - Haymarket Riot

Haymarket Riot

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Interstate Commerce Act

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Panic of 1893

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American Federation of Labor

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William McKinley, 1897-1901

Spanish-American War, 1898-1899- The Spanish–American War (Spanish: Guerra hispano-estadounidense) was a conflict in 1898 between Spain and theUnited States, the result of U.S. intervention in the Cuban War of Independence. U.S. attacks on Spain's Pacific possessionsled to involvement in the Philippine Revolution and ultimately to the Philippine–American War.


Open Door Policy, 1899- The Open Door Policy is a term in foreign affairs initially used to refer to the United States policy established in the late 19th century and the early 20th century, as enunciated in Secretary of State John Hay's Open Door Note, dated September 6, 1899 and dispatched to the major European powers.


Boxer-Rebellion, 1900- The Boxer Rebellion, Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement was a violent anti-foreign and anti-Christian uprising which took place in China towards the end of the Qing dynasty between 1899 and 1901. It was initiated by the Militia United in Righteousness (Yihetuan), known in English as the "Boxers", and was motivated by proto-nationalist sentiments and opposition to imperialist expansion and associated Christian missionary activity. The Great Powers intervened and defeated the Chinese forces.

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Spanish-American War

History Brief: The Boxer Rebellion and Open Door Policy

Boxer Rebellion & Open Door Policy

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Theodore Roosevelt, 1901-1909

Panama Canal, 1903-1914- This is a 48-mile (77 km) ship canal in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean(via the Caribbean Sea) to the Pacific Ocean. The canal cuts across the Isthmus of Panama and is a key conduit for international maritime trade.


"Square Deal"- The Square Deal was President Theodore Roosevelt's domestic program formed upon three basic ideas: conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection.


Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, 1904- The Roosevelt Corollary was an addition to the Monroe Doctrine articulated by President Theodore Roosevelt in his State of the Union address in 1904 after the Venezuela Crisis of 1902–03.


Pure food and Drug Act- An Act for preventing the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated or misbranded or poisonous or deleteriousfoods, drugs, medicines, and liquors, and for regulating traffic therein, and for other purposes.


Trust-busting- "TRUST-BUSTING," a term that referred to President Theodore Roosevelt's policy of prosecuting monopolies, or "trusts," that violated federal antitrust law. Roosevelt's "trust-busting" policy marked a major departure from previous administrations' policies, which had generally failed to enforce the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, and added momentum to the progressive reform movements of the early 1900s.


Coal Strike- The Coal strike of 1902, also known as the anthracite coal strike, was a strike by the United Mine Workers of America in the anthracite coalfields of eastern Pennsylvania. Miners were on strike asking for higher wages, shorter workdays and the recognition of their union.


Conservation- Conservation is the act of preserving, guarding or protecting; wise use.Conservation may refer to: Main usage: Conservation (ethic) of biodiversity, environment, and natural resources, including protection and management.

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Panama Canal

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"Square Deal"

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Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine

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Pure Food & Drug Act

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Trust Busting

Coal Strike of 1902
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William Howard Taft

Payne-Aldrich Tariff, 1909- The PayneAldrich Tariff Act of 1909 (ch. 6, 36 Stat. 11), named for Representative Sereno E. Payne (R–NY) and Senator Nelson W. Aldrich (R–RI), began in the United States House of Representatives as a bill raising certain tariffs on goods entering the United States.


Pinchot-Ballinger Controversy, 1909- The Pinchot–Ballinger controversy, also known as the "Ballinger Affair", was a dispute between U.S. Forest Service Chief Gifford Pinchot and U.S. Secretary of the Interior Richard Achilles Ballinger that contributed to the split of the Republican Party before the 1912 presidential election and helped to define the U.S. conservation movement in the early 20th century.


"Dollar Diplomacy"- Dollar Diplomacy of the United States—particularly during President William Howard Taft's term— was a form of American foreign policy to further its aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries. Historian Thomas A. Bailey argues that Dollar Diplomacy was nothing new, as the use of diplomacy to promote commercial interest dates from the early years of the Republic.

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Payne-Aldrich Tariff

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Pinchot-Ballinger Controversy

Dollar Diplomacy
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Woodrow Wilson

16th Amendment- The Sixteenth Amendment (Amendment XVI) to the United States Constitution allows the Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the states or basing it on the United States Census. This amendment exempted income taxes from the constitutional requirements regarding direct taxes, after income taxes on rents, dividends, and interest were ruled to be direct taxes in the court case of Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co.(1895). The amendment was adopted on February 3, 1913.


17th Amendment- The Seventh Amendment (Amendment VII) to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights. This amendment codifies the right to a jury trial in certain civil cases, and inhibits courts from overturning a jury's findings of fact.


18th Amendment- The Eighteenth Amendment (Amendment XVIII) of the United States Constitution effectively established the prohibition of alcoholic beverages in the United States by declaring the production, transport, and sale of alcohol (though not the consumption or private possession) illegal. The separate Volstead Act set down methods of enforcing the Eighteenth Amendment, and defined which "intoxicating liquors" were prohibited, and which were excluded from prohibition (e.g., for medical and religious purposes). The Amendment was the first to set a time delay before it would take effect following ratification, and the first to set a time limit for its ratification by the states. Its ratification was certified on January 16, 1919, with the amendment taking effect on January 16, 1920.


19th Amendment- The Nineteenth Amendment (Amendment XIX) to the United States Constitution prohibits any United States citizen from being denied the right to vote on the basis of sex. It was ratified on August 18, 1920. The Constitution allows the states to determine the qualifications of voters, subject to limitations imposed by later amendments. Until the 1910s, most states disenfranchised women. The amendment was the culmination of the women's suffrage movement in the United States, which fought at both state and national levels to achieve the vote. It effectively overruled Minor v. Happersett, in which a unanimous Supreme Court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment did not give women the right to vote.


Federal Trade Commission, 1914- The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act. Its principal mission is the promotion of consumer protection and the elimination and prevention of anticompetitive business practices, such as coercive monopoly.


Clayton Anti-trust Act, 1914- was a part of United States antitrust law with the goal of adding further substance to the U.S. antitrust law regime; the Clayton Act sought to prevent anticompetitive practices in their incipiency. That regime started with the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, the first Federal law outlawing practices considered harmful to consumers (monopolies, cartels, and trusts). The Clayton Act specified particular prohibited conduct, the three-level enforcement scheme, the exemptions, and the remedial measures.


M.A.I.N- Military, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism- MILITARISM was one of the four major causes of the war. It was an “arms race.” Because Britain had a large navy, Germany wanted a large navy too.


"Fourteen Points", 1914- Fourteen goals of the United States in the peace negotiations after World War I. President Woodrow Wilson announced the Fourteen Points to Congress in early 1918.


Treaty of Versailles, 1919-1920~ This was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.


League of Nations- An international organization established after World War I under the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles. The League, the forerunner of the United Nations, brought about much international cooperation on health, labor problems, refugee affairs, and the like.

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Dickface Hoover. (The reason for the Great Depression) , and he's a jackass.

National Origins Act, 1929- A law that severely restricted immigration by establishing a system of national quotas that blatantly discriminated against immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and virtually excluded Asians.


Stock Market Crashes, October 1929- Buying On Margin-Buying on margin is the purchase of an asset by paying the margin and borrowing the balance from a bank or broker. Buying on margin refers to the initial or down payment made to the broker for the asset being purchased. The collateral for the funds being borrowed is the marginable securities in the investor's account. Before buying on margin, an investor needs to open a margin account with the broker. In the U.S., the amount of margin that must be paid for a security is regulated by the Federal Reserve Board.


Margin Call-A margin call is a broker's demand on an investor using margin to deposit additional money or securities so that the margin account is brought up to the minimum maintenance margin. Margin calls occur when your account value depresses to a value calculated by the broker's particular formula.


Speculation-Speculation is the act of trading in an asset, or conducting a financial transaction, that has a significant risk of losing most or all of the initial outlay, in expectation of a substantial gain. With speculation, the risk of loss is more than offset by the possibility of a huge gain; otherwise, there would be very little motivation to speculate. While it is often confused with gambling, the key difference is that speculation is generally tantamount to taking a calculated risk and is not dependent on pure chance, whereas gambling depends on totally random outcomes or chance.


Credit-Credit is a contractual agreement in which a borrower receives something of value now and agrees to repay the lender at some date in the future, generally with interest. The term also refers to the borrowing capacity of an individual or company.

2. An accounting entry that either decreases assets or increases liabilities and equity on the company's balance sheet. On the company's income statement, a debit will reduce net income, while a credit will increase net income.


FOUR CAUSES OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION:


Dust Bowl- The Dust Bowl, also known as the Dirty Thirties, was a period of severe dust storms that greatly damaged the ecology and agriculture of the US and Canadian prairies during the 1930s; severe drought and a failure to apply dryland farming methods to prevent wind erosion (the Aeolian processes) caused the phenomenon.


Easy Credit- In the 1920s many people bought goods with credit, often never paying off their debts.


Uneven distribution of Income- ne of the causes of the Great Depression was the unequal distribution of wealth between the rich and the poor. It has been estimated that in 1929, the top 0.1% of Americans had the same wealth as the bottom 42%, highlighting the gap between the rich and the poor.


Unbalanced Foreign Trade- One other issue was the unbalanced foreign trade. During the 1920s, there was a high tariff policy designed to keep foreign products out of America, so that Americans could onlu buy home goods, and that is American-made goods. A tariff is a tax in goods coming into or going out of a country.


In 1930s, they passed the Hawley Smoot Tariff, the largest tariff in U.S. history, which means the highest tax. It was clearly a mistake. Nations were unable to sell their products in American market, and were also unable to buy American goods. This unwise act caused the United States' exports to drop. No income was brought in. I wondered how Americans used their brains in those times.


Bonus Army- The Bonus Army was the popular name of an assemblage of some 43,000 marchers—17,000 World War I veterans, their families, and affiliated groups—who gathered in Washington, D.C., in the spring and summer of 1932 to demand cash-payment redemption of their service certificates. Its organizers called it the Bonus Expeditionary Force to echo the name of World War I's American Expeditionary Forces, while the media called it the Bonus March. It was led by Walter W. Waters, a former army sergeant.


Hoovervilles, Hooverflags, and Hooverblankets- They blamed President Hoover for this, and named the town after him. Democrats coined other terms, such as "Hoover blanket" (old newspaper used as blanketing) and "Hoover flag" (an empty pocket turned inside out).