The Chinese and Japanese Empires

Opium wars

The opium wars were a series of wars between the Chinese and the British over the trade of opium. After losing the war China, under the treaty ofnajing was forced to concede Hong Kong and established five treaty ports.

Qing rulers reactions to reforms

Conservative reformers like Chang Chih-tung and Li Hung-chang did not join the Boxer Movement and had not lost power. Their influence forced the Empress Dowager to consider carrying out deeper reforms. On the other hand, though the Hundred Day Reform of 1898 ended in failure, its idea of reform still persisted and had in fact considerably impressed the Empress Dowager.

The Fall of Tokugawa

The main reason of Tokugawa Japans downfall was the fact that they could not defend against foreign powers and were forced to sign humiliating trade agreements.

The Meiji restoration

The Meiji restoration was the restoration of particle imperial rule to japan under emperor meiji. The new system consolidated role under the new emperor of japan.
‎2,000 Years of Chinese History! The Mandate of Heaven and Confucius: World History #7