Injury Prevention and Control

VCE health & human development, NHPA's-Research activity

Explanation of Injury Prevention & Control

The term injury relates to the adverse effects on the human body that may result from a range of different events. Injuries may be accidental, such as a falls, slips, poising, drowning, sporting, car or transport related and workplace. OR they can be intensional, such as suicide, attempted suicide, and violence. Injury prevention is when we are able to put specific measures in place and prevent an injury from occurring. This is largely done through education.

Why was injuries selected as a NHPA?

Injury was responsible for about 7% of the burden of disease in disability adjusted life years (DALY) in Australia during 2003, and in 2008 it was responsible for causing 6.1% of all deaths within Australia. These were just some of the points as to why it was selected as a NHPA, others included were that injury is the main cause of death for people under the age of 45, and a huge point that lead to injuries becoming a NHPA was that all injury cases are considered to be preventable. If we prevent the injury in the first place, we will end up saving costs when it comes to helping mend people.

Direct and Indirect costs of Injuries

Direct costs: Between 2004 and 2005, direct costs of injuries accounted for 6.5 percent of the total health expenditure. This added up to $3.2 billion. Some of the direct costs in injuries include-

-Running of hospitals.

-Surgeries.

-Pharmaceuticals assisting with pain management.

-Various aids such as wheelchairs and crutches.


Indirect costs: The list indirect costs associated with injuries are monstrous. Some examples include-

-Long term care.

-Lost productivity

-Welfare payments

-Lost taxation revenue

-Payment for services

-Transport costs






Relevant health promotion campaigns aimed to address and add awareness to injuries

The national binge drinking strategy: This strategy us funded by the federal government and is aims to to reduce the risk of injury associated with alcohol misuse. It included the 'don't turn a night out into a nightmare' advertising campaign.

The national slips and falls prevention project: This is a federal government program that provides resources to health professionals and consumers highlighting common forgotten safety features that should be in place.

The TAC: This strategy is a Victorian federal government program designed to advertise the dangers of roads, cars, drink driving, car safety, the devastating effects of being distracted while behind the wheel, speeding, and the importance of seatbelts. They are shown through television advertisements and billboard. Unlike many other campaigns, the TAC also has a children focus.

Biological, behavioral, and social determents of health contributing to the NHPA

Biological: There are a number of things that can influence the kind of injury someone is likely to sustain. Age, body shape, and size are all contributing factors. The body shape and size of an infant makes them more likely to drown as their heads are large compared to the rest of their body , which makes it difficult to lift their head out of the water.

Behavioral: The behavioral components include a large range of things. Alcohol use, drug use, physical activity, and risk taking behavior are all contributors. Alcohol use often causes people to take unneeded risks that can result in higher rates of injury, such as drink driving or swimming while intoxicated. Drug use contributes to higher rates of mental illness, which can influence suicide and violence rates. It also contributes to disability and death if driving while under the influence. Physical activity relates because people participating in contact sports may be at an increased risk for sport related injuries. Risk taking behavior effects injury rates because men are more likely to take risks than women, therefore men have a higher rate of injury.

Social: The social components that effect people are work, housing and transport. Work effects injuries because the more physically demanding the job a person is participating in, the more likely they are to be injured. Unsafe housing may contribute to falls, or injuries, and the way which people transport themselves effect the rate of injuries. People who ride motorbikes are more susceptible to injuries than those who take a tram.