Beethoven

Music AS

Introduction (b.1 - 12)

  • begins with 3 cadences; V7 (I in F major), V (VI in C major), V7 (I in G major)
  • they are all primary chords; 1, 4 + 5 - travels round the 'Circle of Fifths' (clockwise builds tension + anticlockwise decreases tension)
  • last chord uses rhythmic augmentation - grand/more important (b.3 - 4) - greatest tessitura (flutes --> double bass)
  • soft dynamics, dense texture, conjunct (+ twisting) melody in violins, countermelody - falls in flute/bassoon/horns (+ viola), use of inversions
  • homophony + antiphony used + interrupted cadence (b.8 - 11)
  • broken chords (b.12) - rhythm similar to (b.3) - rising/falling scale + cancellation of F# - evidence of C major - classical sense of balance

Exposition - 1st Subject (b.13 - 41)

  • using only 3 notes; G, B, C --> motivic - V-I, V-I
  • dotted rhythm - exciting, all quavers, up octave/augmented
  • sparse accompaniment - low tessitura - harmonically static
  • 2 bar homophonic chordal passage (from woodwind) - chromatic shift up a tone to D minor (chord 2) via dominant (A major) (b.18)
  • motif developed (b.25) - dominant - G major - 7th arpeggios in strings (b.30)
  • passage ends with chord progression: I IV Ic V7 I --> classical sounding

  • melodic lines - triadic (b.33-34) - outline tonic + dominant 7th (b.35-36)
  • periodic phrasing - phrase groups of 2+2 - repeated + developed
  • happens over repeated C in Bsn/Cb - tonic pedal
  • four 2 bar phrases
  • rhythmic alteration - quavers - more excitement
  • I - V, I - V progression

exposition - transition (b.41 - 53)

three note motif - ascending sequence

  • middle note is removed - pattern of rising 4ths (b.44)
  • F# confirms G major dominant
  • F in next bar (b.45) suggests C major (tonic)
  • 1st subject area ends with repetition of Ic - V cadence
  • ends in dominant of G MAJOR
  • exposition - 2nd subject (b.53 - 88)

    • uses periodic phrasing:
    8 bar phrases divided into two 4 bar units - balance

    use of sequence

    use of repetition

    Diatonic Functional Harmony

    (V of V is a secondary dominant chord - dominant of the dominant e.g. circle of 5ths)


    • in G major (dominant) (b.69 - 70) = Ib V7c I iib
    • this is played twice over a dominant pedals (lots of Ds in brass)
    • lots of contrary motion scales (b.75)
    • section ends in G with a perfect cadence


    • this section changes temperature (b.77 - 88) - suddenly quiet from G major to G minor i.e. to the minor chord V (unusual shift of tonality)
    • Circle of 5ths used:
    - Gm - Cm - F7 - Bb - Eb

    - all of these chords are found in G minor (not G major) - exploring dark, twisty, minor side?

    - bass - 2nd subject melody: elongated + sounds more 'romantic' than 'classical' - change in texture (melody in bass NOT violins)

    • solo oboe (b.79) = countermelody + bassoon (b.82) octave lower
    • woodwind homophony (chords) (b.85-87) --> link to 1st subject?

    codetta (b.88 - 109)

    • 3 note motif (from 1st subject) returns - octaves in flute/oboe/bassoon/violin
    • canonic effect between bass + melody (b.88 - 89)
    • building intensity by chromatic harmony:
    --> (b.93) B major chord which is V to E major chord (b.94)

    --> (b.95) diminished 7th chord on G# resolves to a minor (b.96)

    • section ends with octave writing (b.98 - 100) D E C D G outlining G major
    • codetta continues from b.100 with violin melody based on 2nd subject and liberal use of sf chords outlining V-I cadences in G major
    • use of dominant 7th chord in woodwind from b.106 outlining G B D F to provide V7 - I cadence in C major for a repeat of the entire exposition








    recapitulation - 1st subject (b.180 - 190)

    COMPARED TO 1ST SUBJECT IN EXPOSITION:

    recapitulation - transition (b.190 - 207)

    • original transition C -> G
    • this transition C -> C
    • new material with an increased sense of harmonic venture
    • V7-I cadences in various keys with tertiary relationships
    • I: C - D - E - F - G - A
    • V: F - G - Am - Bb - C - Dm
    • crescendo: p -> ff
    • rising harmonic pattern
    • quickening harmonic rhythm (semibreves -> minims)
    • almost chromatic scale in flutes
    • 5 note falling semiquaver motif from 1st subject -> repeated more at end -> intensity
    • timpani announce arrival on G at b.200
    • more developmental that transitional (Beethoven initiative)
    • 8 bars at end (b.200 - 207) in dominant (stable harmony) to prepare for 2nd subject -> contrasts

    recapitulation - 2nd subject (b.208 - 255)

    COMPARED TO 2ND SUBJECT IN EXPOSITION:

    codetta + coda (b.255 - 300)

    • essentially same as codetta in exposition BUT in C MAJOR (not G)
    • extra bar at end (making 300) - allows sound to disperse OR making an even number?