Unit 2 Vocab

American Industrial Revolution

18th century revolution introduced industry in America that resulted in a lot of social and economic changes.

Laissez Faire

The government had no control over business industries.


A monopoly that has a lot of corporations run by one board of directors.

Robber Baron

A business man that steals from the public, abuses the law, mistreats workers, and bribes government officials.

Vertical Integration

A business owns all factors of production and doesn't pay other businesses for production or delivery.

Horizontal Integration

When a business owns a monopoly because they bought out all competitors.

Political Machine

An informal political group that provides essential services for people in order to gain their votes.

Ellis Island

A processing center for immigrants on the East Coast. Located in New York Harbor.


Small, crowded, multi-family apartments where the urban working class lived.

Ethnic Enclaves

Neighborhoods where cultures would group together to keep their traditions similar to their homeland.


Having a preference for native-born people and wanting to limit immigration to the US.

Gilded Age

The Industrial Revolution, described by Mark Twain, to be a layer of glitter over a cheap base.

Social Darwinism

A theory that adapts Charles Darwin's natural selection principles and applying it to society as the "survival of the fittest."


Immigrant school children were taught English language and culture in school and assimilated the ethnic groups into the dominant culture.

Populist Party

Also known as the People's Party, it was a movement by farmers to increase their political power.

Gospel of Wealth

Written by Andrew Carnegie, showed the concept of philanthropy meaning that wealthy Americans had the responsibility to donate money to further social progress.

Social Gospel Movement

Religious reformers such as YMCA and Dwight Moody strove to improve conditions of city life according to biblical ideas of charity and justice.


The idea of progress in science, technology, economic development, and social organization.


Investigative journalists who publicly exposed businesses, one of whom was Ida Tarbell.

John D. Rockefeller

Owner of Standard Oil company and owned 90% of all refineries and pipelines. He was also the richest man ever and had a monopoly of oil.

Andrew Carnegie

He made a fortune in the steel industry. He was a philanthropist and donated $350 million to further social progress.

JP Morgan

One of the most powerful bankers who helped organize major companies. Also, he stabilized the American Financial Markets after the Panic of 1907.

Cornelius Vanderbilt

A self-made multi-millionaire by being the largest steamship operator. He then switched to railroads and increased his earnings and died being worth over $100 million.

Thomas Edison

He invented the phonograph, light bulb, and kinetoscope and had 1,093 patents for inventions.

Henry Ford

Built the most efficient Assembly Line and lowered the cost of a car from $825 to $300.

Samuel Gompers

One of the first leaders of the American Federation of Labor.

William "Boss" Tweed

He was the leader if New York City's corrupt Tammy Hall's political organization.

Upton Sinclair

Wrote the Jungle which spread awareness to Theodore Roosevelt to investigate about the meat industry.

Jacob Riis

He exposed the life of the Urban society and its over population and filth.

Theodore Roosevelt

He was the 26th president. He campaigned for and 8-hour work day, minimum wage, income tax, and an inspection of the meat industry.

William Taft

Helped to continue Roosevelt's antitrust actions. He also passed the 16th amendment.

Meat Inspection Act

Worked to prevent that adulterated and misbranded meat would not be sold as food.

Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)

It regulated the prices of railroads.

Children's Bureau 1912

Prevented child abuse by not letting them work in the factories but having them go to school.

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

Prohibited the growth of monopolies.

16th Amendment

Taxed off of income tax.

17th Amendment

Direct election of U.S. Senators instead of being appointed.

18th Amendment

Didn't allow the consumption of alcohol.

18th Amendment

Allowed women the right to vote.