Ideas of the enlightenment
Newtons idea was that using the scientific method and applying it to every part of life to create a better society, and make progress forward. Newton beleived that world was similar to a massive machine, and discovering how it works will lead to a conclusion on how human society is subject to these natural laws.
Tabula rasa is John locke's idea that every human is born with an empty mind, and by experience his mind is filled with knowledge.so he beleived that If a human was born and exposed to good influences then society would change with the generation for better.
3: checks and balances:
Montesquie beleived that the best government would have split powers between an executive, a legislative, and judicial branches. His ideas, after being translated to English, were used in the US constitution.
4: Religious tolerance
Voltaire had fought against religious intolerance in Europe, stating that all men are brothers under God. He beleived that the world was a clock, created by God, it's maker, and was set to run without his interruption.