Khufu

4th Dynasty but I am still in 1st.

Background and Personality

Better known by his Greek name, Cheops, the pharaoh Khufu was the second pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty reigning from 2589–2566 BC. Born to King Sneferu and his mother Hetepheres I, The eldest son of 8 boys and the oldest of all 13 of his kids, he was next in line for pharaoh. It is said that Khufu is often described as a cruel leader. Contemporary documents suggest that unlike his father he was not seen as a beneficent ruler and by the Middle Kingdom he is generally described as heartless ruler. In the Westcar Papyrus he is depicted as being keen to increase his own power and ensure the continued rule of his family, but is not as a particularly cruel monarch although he does offer the life of a criminal to test the skills in resurrection of a magician (which is often quoted as evidence that he was evil). It is worth noting that there is no indication left by any of the workers, artisans or nobles during his lifetime that Khufu was despised. Herodotus states that the Egyptians could not even bear to speak his name, yet he was worshipped as a god after his death and his cult continued well into the Late Periodand was very popular in the Roman Period.

Contributions

Khufu is best known as the builder of the Great Pyramid of Giza. There was an empty sarcophagus in the King's Chamber of the Great Pyramid and no evidence that the pyramid was ever used for an actual burial. However, no other burial site has been discovered and his mummy has never been found.

There are a number of satellite burials around the Great Pyramid, including that of his mother, Hetepheres, and two of his wives. There are also a series of mastabas belonging to some of his sons and their wives in the vicinity. Beside the Greta Pyramid, two large "boat pits" containing huge cedar ships were discovered.

Despite the size of the pyramid built by Khufu, only one tiny ivory sculpture has been definitively confirmed as depicting him. His master builder, Hemon, left a larger statue behind! A large granite head has also been found, but although its features resemble those of Khufu some experts argue that it may represent Huni of the third dynasty instead. There is also a fragment of a small limestone head which may represent Khufu wearing the white crown of Upper Egypt

Downfall

His death finally after 23 years of power. But there is so much mystery shrouded around Khufu as there is not very much information left behind about him. But despite not being remembered as fondly as his father, the funerary cult of Khufu was still followed in the 26th Dynasty, and he became increasingly popular during the Roman period.

Family

Parents

- Hetepheres I

- Sneferu


Daughters

- Heterpheres II

- Nefertiabet

- amerernebty I

- Meresankh II


Sons

- Djedefhor

- Horbaef

- Lynefer II

- Nefermaat II

- Khafra

- Djedefre

- Kawab

Greatest Achievment

All great pharaoahs at beginning of their rule begin the construction of their burial ground. A pyramid that is a monument to their reign.

Artifacts and Remeneants of Khufus Rule

The only three-dimensional depiction of Khufu, that has survived time nearly completely, is a small and well restored ivory figurine known as Khufu "Statuette".

Artifcats and Discoveries of Khufus Rule

Excavations at Saqqara in 2001 and 2003 revealed a pair of terracotta statues depicting a lion goddess on her feet with 2 childlike kings with her. It was later found that the figurine on the right can be identified as king Khufu by his horus name. The left one depicts king Pepy I of 6th dynasty. It is said that they are set apart from eachother and were added at different times.

Sources

<Hill, J. "Khufu (Cheops)." Rulers of Ancient Egypt:. Ancient Egypt Online, 9 Sept. 2006. Web. 07 Dec. 2014.>


<Corp, BBC. "Khufu." BBC News. BBC, 1 Oct. 2010. Web. 09 Dec. 2014>



<Bayuk, Andrew. "Guardian's Egypt - The Pharaoh Khufu." Guardian's Egypt - The Pharaoh Khufu. Guardians Egypt, 21 May 2004. Web. 07 Dec. 2014>


<"Khufu." Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2004, June, Mary "Khufu." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th Ed.. 2014, Elizabeth Knowles, Austin "Cheops." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th Ed.. 2014, John "Cheops." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. 2007, and Sylvester "Khufu." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. 2007. "Khufu." Encyclopedia.com. HighBeam Research, 01 Jan. 2004. Web. 09 Dec. 2014.>


<Bart, Anneke. "Ancient Egypt." Khufu, Cheops. SLU Uni, 12 Apr. 2008. Web. 09 Dec. 2014.>