Conquer the Unknown
Come to Mars!
Mars has day and night just like Earth. It rotates on it's axis which is an imaginary line that runs vertically through the earth, and revolves around the Sun. The side of Mars that faces the moon has day, and the other side has night. One full rotation on it's axis is one day on Mars. Earth's day is about 24 hours, while Mar's day is 24 hours and 40 minutes.
Mars has years too because it revolves around our Sun. A year is one full revolution around the sun. Earth's year is about 365 days, while a year on Mars is 687 days.
Mars does have seasons. Just like Earth, Mars has a tilted axis so it doesn't spin on a 0 degree angle. It actually spins on a 25 degree angle (Earth has a 23.5 degree angle). This means that at certain times during the year, one part of the planet is getting more direct sunlight and the other parts are getting less direct sunlight. The part that gets more direct sunlight is in summer and the other parts are in Winter. When the planet is sideways to the Sun, so no one area is getting more direct sunlight, it is either fall or spring.
Phases of the Moon
Mars has two moons. They are Phobos and Deimos. They do have phases like Earth's Moon because they revolve around Mars and are shined on at different angles by our Sun. The difference is that there are two of them so they can't be in the same phase at once, so Phobos and Deimos are always in different phases.
An eclipse is an event where light is totally or partially blocked from one celestial body (moon, planet, sun) by another. Mars has eclipses because it has two moons and the Sun who can align for either a lunar eclipse, where the moon is completely in Mars's shadow, or a partial solar eclipse where the Sun is partially in either Phobos's or Deimos's shadow. They can only have partial solar eclipses because Phobos and Deimos are so small.
Mars and Earth both have day and night because they both rotate on their axis and orbit the Sun. Mars has a longer day than Earth because it rotates slightly slower. Both of them also have years because they orbit the Sun. Mars has a much longer year because it is farther out from the Sun so it has more distance to travel to do a complete revolution. Both Mars and Earth have seasons because they both have a tilt on their axis, so the part of the planet tilted towards the Sun gets more direct light than the areas not tilted towards the Sun. Mars's axis has a 25 degree tilt while Earth's axis has a 23.5 degree tilt. Additionally, they both have phases of the moon. Mars has two moons. They are called Phobos and Deimos. Earth has one moon that we just call the Moon. Due to the fact that that Phobos and Deimos orbit Mars, and that Mars orbits the Sun, the moons have phases just like Earth's moon. The phase they are in depends on the position of the Sun and the moons. The main difference between Earth's phases of the moon and Mars's phases of the moon is that since Mars has two moons, they are always in different phases at the same time because they can't be in the same place at once. Mars does not have tides because it does not have any liquid water. Earth does have tides because of the positions of the Moon and the Sun and how their gravity pulls on the water. Both Earth and Mars have eclipses. Both planets can have lunar eclipses where a moon completely in the planet's shadow. Earth can have a solar eclipse where the sun is in the Moon's shadow but Mars can only have partial solar eclipses because it's moons are both very small.