Low Blood Pressure

By: Bryana Babiash

Structure of Veins

Outer most layer - tunica externa ( connective tissue fibers ). Middle layer - smooth muscle layer & elastic tissue. Inner layer - tunica intime ( single layer of squamous epithelial ) Different from a artery a vein has valves that keep the blood for in the same direction
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Structure of Artery

Tunica externa - Tunica Media - Tunica Intima
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Cannot be seen because they are microscopic - Have extreme thickness.
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Systemic and Pulmonary Circulation
Conducting System Of The Heart

Aorta- L & R pulmonary arteries- pulmonary trunk- L & R pulmonary veins - superior & inferior vena cava

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Arteries, Veins, & Capillaries

Arteries : distribute blood from the heart to capillaries in the body.

maintain arterial blood pressure at a normal level

Veins : collect blood from capillaries & return to the heart

serve as blood reservoirs, carry blood under lower pressure & can expand to hold a larger volume of blood or constrict to hold a much smaller amount

Capillaries : exchange vessels

ECG Test

Electrocardiogram is the graphic record of the heart's electrical activity.

Has three very characteristic deflections, or waves - the P wave, the T wave, & the QRS complex.

They represent the electrical activity that regulates the contraction or relaxation of the atria or ventricles.

  • The small P wave occur with depolarization of the atria.
  • The QRS complex occurs as a result of depolarization of the ventricles.
  • The T wave results from electrical activity generated by repolarization of the ventricles

Blood Pressure

  • Pressure or "push" of blood as it flows through the cardiovascular system
  • Highest in arteries & lowest lowest in the veins
  • Blood vessels are listed according to the amount of blood pressure in them
Five factors of blood pressure

  • Blood Volume - the larger of volume of blood in the arteries the more pressure the blood exerts on the walls of the arteries or higher blood pressure will be, less volume the lower the blood pressure
  • Strength of Heart Contractions - Strength of the heart beat affects blood pressure and a weaker beat decreases it
  • Heart Rate - heart beats faster, more blood enters the aorta, increases volume, and would increase blood pressure
  • Blood Viscosity - blood is less viscous than normal, blood pressure decreases
  • Resistance to Blood Flow - gradients affect the resistance to blood flow. Low resistance equals low blood pressure, high resistance equals high blood pressure

Stroke Volume - refers to the volume of blood ejected from ventricles during each beat

Cardiac output - or the volume of blood pumped by one ventricle per minute

Pulse - an artery expanding and then recoiling alternately

Heart Sounds

The heart has a lub dup sound

the lub is caused by the vibration and abrupt clsure of the AV valve

the dup is caused by the closing of bothe the SL valces when the ventricles undergo distole (relax)

Blood Tests

Hematocrit test - is a measure of the total blood volume made up by the red blood cells

WBC Count - the total number of WBC's per cubic millimeter of whole blood ranges between 5,00 to 9,000

Platelet Count - essential part in blood clotting, counts the number of platelets

The Patient - Low Blood Pressure

The patient has low blood pressured caused by dehydration. Her EKG test is normal but it affects other tests. The pulse rate for this patient is low, the heart rate is at 40/100. This patient is more likely to have a stroke do to the fact that heart is weakened. Heart fails to pump the amount of blood it pumps. What is happening is because of the decrease of blood in the arteries it would become equal to the average pressure in arterioles. The result is that no blood pressure gradient between the arteries and the arterioles therefore no force would be available to move blood out of the arteries into the arterioles. With arterial blood volume decreasing the blood pressure also decreases even though the heart rate has increased. With low blood pressure, the cardiac output is much lower do to the fact that the heart has less blood to pump through. Since the patient has low blood pressure the contractions of her heart are weaker causing a weaker sound of the lub dup sound. Do to the fact of her low blood pressure her white blood cells will also be lower, that is the same with the hematocrit test, the volume of her blood is lower causing her to have lower red blood cells. With my patient being dehydrated, it can cause more blood clots. The platelets help with blood clotting. Some solutions I suggest for my patient is to drink lots of water and to exercise more, to get the blood flowing.

Works Cited

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"THE MIRACLE OF THE BLOOD AND HEART." THE MIRACLE OF THE BLOOD AND HEART. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Mar. 2013. <http://www.miracleofthebloodandheart.com/12.htm>.

Thibodeau, Gary A., and Kevin T. Patton. Structure & function of the body. 12th ed. St. Louis, Mo.: Mosby, 2004. Print.

"Conducting System Of The Heart - YouTube." YouTube. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=te_SY3MeWys>.

"Systemic and Pulmonary Circulation - YouTube." YouTube. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0jznS5psypI>.

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