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English to Icelandic - Dog disease in lions spread by multiple species
Árið 1994 þurkaði taugasjúkdómur út 30% fjölda ljóna í Serengeti sem er einn af stærstu dýralífssvæðum í heiminum. Vísindamenn útskurðuðu að sjúkdómur sem áður var talið að fyndist eingöngu í hundum, sléttuúlfum og nokkrum öðrum spendýrum sem nefnist hundafár hafi valdið þessu. Sönnunnargögn benda til að ljónin hafi komist í snertingu við sjúkdómin við kynni heimilishunda frá þorpum á svæðinu. Byrjað var að bólusetja alla hundana til að hindra frekari útbreiðslu á sjúkdómnum. Sjúkdómurinn hætti að dreifast en bara á milli hundanna.
Eftir að hafa greint þriggja áratuga gömul blóðsýni frá heimilishundum og ljónunum á svæðinu leiddu rannsóknir til ljóss að á meðan að sjúkdómurinn dreyfðist á milli ljóna var farið að draga allverulega úr einkennum hans hjá hundunum
Lið dýralækna, sjúkdóma vistfræðinga, faraldsfræðinga og náttúrufræðinga skrifuðu ritgerð um það að hlutverk heimilishundsins að dreyfa þessu sjúkdómi hefur minnkað.
„Dreifing sjúkdómsins milli ljónanna í þjóðgarðinum í Serengeti má ekki eingöngu rekja til heimilishunda á svæðinu og hefur sú dreifing líklega að fela í sér stærra hýsingarkerfi“ sögðu þeir.
Aðrar villtar tegundir, að meðaltalin hýenur og sjakalar, eru sagðar halda sjúkdómnum gangandi í náttúrunni. Þar að leiðandi getur skjúkdómurinn meðal ljóna og annara dýra sem þegar hafa verið meðhöndluð sprottið upp á hverri stundu.
Rannsóknarmenn segja óþarfi sé að halda áfram að bera kennsl á hvaða dýrategundir eru að dreyfa sjúkdómnum og hvað veldur uppkomu hans. Það er t.d talið að ef sýkt hýena eða önnur hrææta (eða kjötæta sem étur stundum hræ) getur dreift sjúkdómnum gegnum slímhúðar seyti til annarra rándýra á sama stað.
Til að auka skilning á hundafárs veirunni og dreifingu hennar í náttúrunni er nauðsynlegt að halda áhrifaríka vakt og stjórn á sjúkdómnum á milli ljóna og annarra dýra sem eiga á hættu að smitast, sögðu vísindamennirnir
Original text in English;
In 1994, a mysterious neurological ailment wiped out 30-percent of the lion population in the Serengeti, one of the largest wildlife regions in the world. Scientists determined it was canine distemper, a disease previously thought to infect only dogs, coyotes and a small number of other mammals. Evidence suggested the lions had contracted the virus from dogs living in villages and settlements nearby. A domestic dog vaccination campaign was launched to curb the infection's spread. It worked--among dogs, at least.
After analyzing three decades of blood serum data collected from lions and domestic dogs, the study's researchers discovered that the virus continues to circulate in the lion population while significantly declining among dogs.
The dog's role in spreading the disease appears to be shrinking, conclude the paper's authors, an international team of veterinarians, disease ecologists, epidemiologists and mathematical biologists.
"Domestic dog populations immediately surrounding the Serengeti National Park are not the sole driver of canine distemper infections in lions, and its persistence is likely to involve a larger multi-host community," they write.
Other species, including hyenas and jackals, are probably transmitting the disease and keeping it looming in the wild, they say. Consequently, outbreaks among lions and other already-threatened animals could occur at any time.
Researchers say more work is necessary to identify which species spread distemper and what triggers the spillovers. For example, it's believed that an infected hyena or other carnivore feeding on a carcass can disperse the virus through mucus secretions to other predators at the same site.
A better understanding of canine distemper virus and its dynamics in the wild is necessary to effectively monitor and better control the disease among lions and other threatened animals, the scientists report.
Why did I choose to translate this text?
Icelandic to English - Canine distemper and Infectious hepatitis
Vaccination for dogs
In July 2008 Icelanders began to use a new vaccine, Recombitek C4, witch gives protection to canine disteper, infectious hepatitis and more
Canine distemper caused by Paramyxoviruses (related to measles). Canine distemper is a very serious disease that spreads rapidly among unvaccinated dogs. The most common symptoms are discharge from the eyes and nose, cough, vomiting, diarrhea and convulsions. Many of those dogs who survive the disease get permanent damage to the visual and nervous system, as well as teeth. Sources say that canine distemper has raged in Iceland during the second half of the 19th century, but the last outbreak was in 1966. All imported dogs must be vaccinated against canine distemper (among other diseases) because the Icelandic breed is particularly vulnerable to the disease.
Infectious hepatitis in dogs caused by dogs-adenovirus (sp. 1) and causes different symptoms, from mild illness in to very serious once. In severe cases, the virus can cause the dog to die in less than a day. The main symptoms are sore throat, fever, loss of appetite, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal soreness and weakness. It is believed that this disease came to Iceland in 1980 but has never been really epidemic case. Hepatitis vaccination in Iceland began in 1996, but in 2003 the production of the vaccine stopped and since then has hepatitis caused a lot of trouble here. Hopefully the use of Recombitek C4 will help hepatitis cases decreased.
Original text in Icelandic;
Í júní 2008 var nýtt bóluefni, Recombitek C4, tekið í notkun á Íslandi.
Það veitir vörn gegn eftirfarandi sjúkdómum:
Hundafár orsakast af paramyxóveiru (skylt mislingum). Hundafár er mjög alvarlegur sjúkdómur sem smitast hratt á meðal óbólusettra hunda. Algengustu einkennin eru útferð úr augum og nefi, hósti, uppköst, niðurgangur og krampaköst. Margir þeirra sem lifa sjúkdólminn af hljóta varanlegan skaða á sjón og taugakerfi og einnig tönnum. Heimildir eru um að hundafár hafi geisað á Íslandi á seinni hluta 19. aldar en síðasti faraldurinn var árið 1966. Allir innfluttir hundar verða að vera bólusettir gegn hundafári (auk fleiri sjúkdóma) þar sem íslenski hundastofninn er sérstaklega viðkvæmur fyrir þeim sjúkdómi.
Smitandi lifrarbólga í hundum orsakast af hunda-adenóveiru (teg. 1) og veldur mismunandi einkennum, frá vægum veikindum upp í mjög alvarleg. Í alvarlegustu tilfellunum getur veiran dregið hundinn til dauða á innan við sólarhring. Helstu einkenni eru hálsbólga, hiti, lystarleysi, niðurgangur, uppköst, eymsli í kvið og slappleiki. Talið er að þessi sjúkdómur hafi fyrst borist til Íslands um 1980 en aldrei hefur verið um eiginlegan faraldur að ræða. Bólusetning gegn lifrarbólgu hér á landi hófst árið 1996 en árið 2003 var framleiðslu bóluefnisins hætt og síðan þá hefur lifrarbólgan valdið töluverðum usla hér. Vonandi verður notkun Recombitek C4 til þess að lifrarbólgutilfellum fækkar til muna.
Why did I choose to translate this text?
Interview with Dr. Annie Harvilicz
I interviewed Dr. Annie Harzilicz. She is a well-known vet and the founder of Animal Wellness Centers. I chose to interview her because I’ve been inspired by her work for some time know. I‘m fascinated about the fact that she used to work with engendered species. I’ve watched many documentaries on these species and wanted to talk to someone that had worked with these animals and I just loved the fact that Dr. Harvilicz had experience with both wild animals and pets.
1 What inspired you to become a veterinarian?
2. What's your most memorable event in your career so far?
3. What used to be a casual day when you were working with endangered species? Were you ever afraid of them?
4. What do you do when you're not working?
5. What was your favourite class in school?
6. What do you love most about being a vet?
7. Who is your idol?
8. Is there anything you dislike about your job?
9. Have you ever been to Iceland? If so where did you go?
Annie wanted to be a veterinarian when she was 4 years old but lost sight of this goal when she developed horrible allergies to dogs and cats. She took allergy injections for 10 years and had given up hope of pursing her childhood dream. At the end of college she got a small brown puppy named Maggie. The puppy inspired her to not give up on the dream to take care of animals. Her most memorable event was helping ultrasound one of the Giant Pandas at the San Diego Zoo
On routine days when she was working with engendered species, she and the team would mostly perform vaccinations and collect blood samples. Working with these species was often frightening. The scariest day was when they were performing x-rays on a sedated rhinoceros and the rhino woke up and started running. Annie is a busy woman but when she isn’t working, she mostly walks her dogs or plays with them on the beach. Her favourite class in school was Biology and there is nothing more she loves about her job than taking care of the dogs.
Her idol is Wayne Pacelle, the President of the Humane Society of the United States. There are though some dislikes about the job. Annie doesn’t like dealing with sick animals whose owners cannot afford to care for them. They have an organization that helps people who need help with medical care but sometimes it isn't enough and she wishes veterinary care could be free.
Unfortunately Annie has never been to Iceland
Laurel Braitman - Depressed dogs, cats with OCD — what animal madness means for us humans
Laurel tells trough out the lecture stories about animals dealing with PTSD (Posttraumatic stress disorder), other anxiety or mental disorder problems. She told a story about a woman who had adopted a cat from a shelter. Her previous owner was an elderly man. He died from a heart attack while he was vacuuming the apartment. A week later the man was discovered with his cat next to him and the vacuum still on. When the cat got a new home it couldn’t be in the house or anywhere near when the cleaned the house. Luckily the cat got over his fear with the love and support from its family.
Another story Laurel told was about a monkey named Boonula. When Boonula was a baby a pack of dogs attacked him and ripped of both of his legs and one arm. He was able drag himself to a monastery where the monks called in a vet to treat his wounds. Boonula was then taken to an elephant facility. His carers couldn’t put him with other monkeys so they got him a rabbit to keep him company. They became good friends and bonded. The rabbit then had little bunnies. Boonula was too excited and protective about those bunnies that he couldn’t sleep and even feared that the mom rabbit would harm them. His carers ended up taking the bunnies away, but fearing that Boonula would get depressed, they got him a new rabbit to keep him company.
In those videos that we find on YouTube and Facebook we see unlikely friendships between different animals for example the Great Dane and the deer, the monkey and the bunny and you think that it is so amazing and impossible but this is legit. In fact, some interesting studies have pointed to oxytocin levels, which are a kind of bonding hormone that we release when we're having sex or nursing or around someone that we care for extremely, oxytocin levels raising in both humans and dogs who care about each other or who enjoy each other's company, and beyond that, other studies show that oxytocin raised even in other pairs of animals, so, say, in goats and dogs who were friends and played with each other, their levels spiked afterwards.
So in conclusion animals can suffer from the same mental illness problems as us humans. You can tell if perhaps your dog keeps chasing shadows, his tail or something that doesn’t exist all day it might suffer from some physiological issues. But dogs like Laurels dog Oliver are given antidepressants and some antianxiety medications to keep them from jumping out of buildings or jumping into traffic. Just recently, actually, a study came out in "Science" that showed that even crawdads responded to antianxiety medication. It made them braver, less skittish, and more likely to explore their environment. By taking a closer look into other animals lives that suffer from mental illness can help us better understand humans and treat them that suffer from the same problem.
Barbara Natterson-Horowitz - What veterinarians know that physicians don’t?
Barbra got a call from a veterinary from Los Angeles zoo that asked her to check a chimpanzee’s heart because they were worried that she had had a stroke. Occasionally, physicians are asked for help in some cases like this. Barbra got to examine lion, seals, gorilla and of course the chimpanzee. After doing so she was stunned and had an epiphany – while working with the veterinarians they talked about their patient’s diagnosis and treatments.
What stunned Barbra was that those animals deal with the same problems as humans, the get for example breast cancer, heart failures and they dial with mental illness. Unlike other doctors, veterinarians can treat patients that suffer from mental disorder for example self-injury. There are people that harm themselves, some pick their hair and some even cut themselves. Some birds pick their feathers from anxiety, and veterinarians have been diagnosing and treating those patients since the 1970’s. If this veterinary knowledge had been put to the hands of other human doctors they could’ve saved so many lives from depression and other horrible mental diseases.
Veterinarians have very effective ways of treating self-injuries and even preventing them. Shouldn't that knowledge be put into the hands of psychologist and physicians?
Some women get depression after giving birth and don’t connect with their own child, some of those women are so emotionally unstable that the even harm their child. Mares can also reject their foals and veterinarians know how to treat that problem. They increase the bonding hormone (oxytocin) in the mare who then starts caring for her foal.
Many physicians are snobs and don’t understand that it is harder to get in to vet schools than doctor schools these days. Vets need to learn about diseases in mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, while physicians only learn about diseases in humans. Some of the best and humanistic medicine are being practised by doctors whose patients aren’t even human and one of the best ways of treating our human patients is by paying close attention to how all the other patients on the planet live, grow, get sick and heal.
Why did I choose Barbara's and Laurel's videos on ted.com?
Ian Dunbar - friendly dog training
Dogs have interest like us humans but they involve other things like chasing squirrels, sniffing each other and running around. When a dog is doing something that interests him while you're trying to tell him to come to you it is more likely that the dog won’t choose you because he can always come to you and he could as well come to you later. Know if you start yelling at him with an angry tone you'll lose the battle because the dog will think "O no! I know that tone, last time he used it I got punished". The owner needs to teach the dog that it wants to come to you because it's fun, not because it'll get punished if he doesn't come.
When you get a puppy you must teach it the things you want him to know when he's all grown up. If you get a puppy and always pet it and tell it what a good boy he is when he jumps on he, he'll expect the same results even though he's a Tibetan mastiff an weighs 80 pounds. It's crucial to remember this, otherwise you'll end up with a gigantic misbehaved dog.
People here get very confused about what a punishment is. They think a punishment is something nasty. They think it's something painful, or scary, or nasty. It doesn't have to be. There's several definitions of what a punishment is, but one definition, the most popular, is: a punishment is a stimulus that reduces the immediately preceding behaviour, such that it's less likely to occur in the future. It does not have to be nasty, scary or painful and if it doesn't have to be, then maybe it shouldn't be. When dogs misbehave the owners turn to books on dog training and most of them say “pitch it’s paw, squeeze lemon juice in its face, hit its nose” and something like that. But why use violence? It will only make your dog afraid of you or even make it violent.
Dog training should be about rewarding good behaviour. If you want your dog to great you by sitting you should teach him to sit and when he does give him treats. He’ll understands that if he sits on command he’ll get something good instead. In the end the dog starts thinking that it’s training you. “If I sit, he’ll give me candy! This is so easy, I get what I want just by sitting!” This is very affective and the shows the best results. You don’t need to hit your dog so it behaves better, treat it as a child because training a dog is similar to training a child. Communication is almost the same between a man and a woman, man and child and between a man and his dog. Violence is never the answer and there are better ways, after all your dog deserves better!
Why did I chose Ian's video on ted.com?
I've had a huge interest in dogs ever since I was a child and had to give up my dog Kóngur. I don't care for people that mistreat their dog and when I saw this link on ted I liked the idea that this man had similar opinions on how to train your dog without using violence and I was very pleased with the results.