African National Congress

Nicole Francis


South Africa's governing political party

Deems itself a force of national liberation in the post-apartheid era

"disciplined force to the left"

Main opposition to the government during apartheid, played major role in peace-making

Tripartite Alliance: Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU), South African Communist Party (SACP)

also allied with: South African Indian National Congress, South African Congress of Democrats, and Coloured People's Congress

"Forget all the past differences among Africans and unite in one national organization."

ANC Tactics and Music in the Anti-Apartheid Movement (Maggie Williams)


1912 Jan- South African Native National Congress (SANNC) formed

1923 changes name to African National Congress (ANC)

1940s becomes mass movement and effective

1950s Defiance Campaign

1955 Congress of People adopt Freedom Charter, sent volunteers to collect freedom demands

1960 Sharpeville Massacre 69 people killed by police in anti-apartheid protest

1990 no longer banned in South Africa

2008 members removed from US terrorism watch list

Inkatha Freedom Party

ANC fought with them repeatedly

between 1985 and 1989, 5,000 civilians were killed in fighting between the two parties

Shell Massacre and Boipatong Massacre

Umkhonto we Sizwe

founded in 1961 with South African Communist Party

translated to "Spear of the Nation", also called MK

military wing of the ANC

founded after the Sharpeville Massacre

several members turned to violence and acts of terrorism justified their acts by the end goal

created a divide between peaceful members and violent

committed several acts of terrorism: Magoo's Bar bombing, Church Street Bombing