Athlete with regular exercises

Rikki Inman


Blood Pressure- is the pressure or "push" of blood as it flows through the cardiovascular system. Five factors -blood volume, strength of heart contraction, heart rate, blood viscosity, and resistance to blood flow

Cardiac Cycle- is each complete heartbeat, including contraction and relaxation of the atria and ventricles

Pulse- An artery expanding and then recoiling alternately

Stroke Volume- The amount of blood that is ejected from the ventricles of the heart with each beat

Pericardium- Lining covering the heart, consists of two layers of fibrous tissue with a small space in between them

The normal heartbeat is described as a lub dup sound. The first, or lub, part is caused by the vibration and abrupt closure of the AV valves as the ventricles contract. The second, or dup part, is caused by the closing of both the SL valves when the ventricles relax.


An ECG translates the heart's electrical activity into line tracings on paper.

P= Atria depolarizing

QRS- Ventricles depolarizing

T- Ventricles repolarizing

Chambers and Valves


The two upper chambers are called atria and the two lower are called ventricles.

They are divided into the left and right side of the heart.

The atria is the smaller of the two chambers

also they have thinner walls and less muscular.

Often called receiving chambers

The wall of each chamber is composed of myocardium


Atrioventricular valves separate the atrial chambers

Bicuspid valve is located between the left atrium and ventricle

Tricuspid valve is located between the right atrium and ventricle

Semilunar valves are located between the two ventricluar chambers and the large arteries that carry blood away from the heart

Conduction System

The heart has a built in conduction system for coordination contractions during the cardiac cycle.

Intercalated disks are actually connections and electrically join muscle fibers into a single unit that can conduct an impulse through the entire wall of the chambers without stopping

Types of Blood Vessels

Arteries --> -Carry blood away from the heart

-Normally Oxygenated

(Subdivide into vessels that become smaller and smaller into arterioles)

Capillaries --> -Smallest blood vessels

-Enable the exchange of water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide

Veins--> -Carry blood to the heart

-Most are deoxygenated


Distributes blood to the whole body

L & R Pulmonary Arteries-

carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs

Pulmonary Trunk-

L & R Pulmonary veins-

any vein that carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium

Superior and inferior Vena Cava-

Largest vein in the body -blood travels through this into the right atrium

Athlete with Regular Exercise

Causes- Regular exercise and sports

ECG results- Typically slower heart rate, resting heart rate can be well below 60 bpm when doctors indicate 60 bpm as "normal"

Many other findings can be present, including sinus arrhythmia, wandering atrial pacemaker, first- and second-degree heart block, junctional rhythm and various types of repolarization abnormalities.

Pulse- Lower than non athletes, also at rest the pulse may be abnormal but as exercise begins pulse returns to normal.

Blood Pressure- Blood pressure tends to vary, but the trend for athletes is lower than normal

Stroke Volume- Athletes stoke volume is higher than most

Cardiac Output- Higher than most because the heart pumps more blood with each beat

Heart Sounds- The heart sounds would not change

Blood tests- Low WBC, they need more red blood cells to carry oxygen to their organs during workout. Hematocrit test checks red blood count and detects if they have taken drugs to enhance the level. High platelet count during dehydration.

With more exercise, your heart will enlarge and get tougher. It adapts to your workout making sure your body has enough blood and oxygen. The valves will get wider if needed allowing more blood flow.

CAA108 ECG Athlete