Rise of Complex Societies

By : Travis, Kaitlin, Brendon, and Audery

Specialized Labor

Specialized labor helped to advance multiple early societies. There were artisans, craftsmen, shipbuilders, and many other specialized skilled workers. They helped to advance their communities with trade, market places, and building different things. Furthermore, specialized labor allowed for many empires, temples, roads, and other important buildings to be built. Lastly without specialized labor supporting these societies, these empires would not have strived.

Transportation and Methods

The transportation methods in early societies enabled specialized laborers to have ways of trading. Also with the creation of the wheel, domestication of horses, building of chariots, and ship building there were many ways to travel around. People could also use chariots and horses as a weapon of war. Furthermore, ships allowed people to travel longer distances for trade. In many societies they relied on trade to obtain certain goods. For example, The Olmec society traded to get Jade and Obsidian. Lastly, Egypt traded to obtain wood.


Trade enabled many countries to obtain the supplies and resources that were essential to function a society properly. For example, like mentioned previously before Egyptians were able to gain wood from Lebanon because of trade. Also, Iron tools and weapons were able to rapidly spread throughout Mesopotamia, Egypt, and parts of Africa. Furthermore, trade enabled cultural diffusion between empires. Lastly, with the exchange of goods many ideas were also shared and spread within different regions.


Metallurgy was an important part of early civilizations from tools to representing the power of a government. Tools like plows were made from these metals and they increased the efficiency of agricultural tasks like farming and herding. Another major part of the importance of metallurgy was it's representation of power. For example, The Shang Dynasty used bronze to represent power. Furthermore, not only bronze was used to show power.

As iron came from the west, the stronger and cheaper metal was used to overthrow the Shang Dynasty. Without metallurgy trade would not be possible. For example, there wouldn’t be food to trade because the tools built with bronze and iron increased the efficiency of these tasks. Lastly, many transportation methods used for trade were also built from metals such as iron and bronze.

Agriculture Advances

Agricultural advances occurred when nomadic people settled down due to the decrease of available food. Their main source of food was animals and, once there were no animals to follow people were forced to settle down. Populations rose from small tribes to villages which increased the demand for crops. In addition, agricultural advances such as irrigation systems made mass production of crops possible.

Easy availability to crops caused populations to soar, which inevitably supplied societies with more ideas and opinions on new innovations. Furthermore agricultural advances rose from a dilemma causing populations to rise tremendously, which in turn caused tribes to evolve to villages, and then into large empires. In conclusion without these advances and innovations, none of the above would have occurred.