Eisenhower's Elections

First Election:

  • 1952
  • Ran for Republicans
  • Against Stevenson
  • Running mate was Senator Richard Nixon
  • Made use of powerful new T.V.s
  • Won by over half a million in popular vote and 442 to 89 in Electoral College

Second Election

  • 1956
  • Ran for Republicans
  • Against Stevenson
  • Won by nearly 1 million in popular votes and 457 to 73 electoral votes
  • Failed to win either houses of congress for his party

Big image

The Cold War During the Eisenhower Era

Cold War:

  • Political hostility towards USSR that never flamed into open war
  • Each side maneuvered to check the others power
  • Conflict took place between puppet states

Events Under Eisenhower:

  • Peace signed in Korea in 1953 after threat of atomic bombing; returned to pre-war status
  • Republican Platform in 1952 called for actively "rolling back" communist influence, not merely containing it
  • Threats of nuclear bombing made against China in response to their shelling of Taiwan
  • Stalin died in 1953 and was replaced by Khrushchev
  • Hungary unsuccessfully rebelled against USSR
  • Successful revolt in Vietnam leads to split at 17th parallel, with communist North Vietnam under Ho Chi Minh and democratic South Vietnam under Ngo Dinh Diem; America provided aid to the south
  • CIA stages coup in Iran to establish Phalevi as Shah and secure oil for the west
  • The Suez Crisis: French and British forces attack Egypt to reopen it to their country after Egyptian president Nasser nationalized it; U.S. forced them to withdraw by withholding oil
  • 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine promises aid to Middle Eastern countries threatened by Communists
  • Communists launch Sputnik I and II into orbit, beginning space race
  • Nuclear tests temporarily stop in 1958
  • An American U-2 plane is shot down over Russia during 1960 Paris conference, souring diplomatic attempts between US and USSR
  • Castro leads revolt against Batista and begins seizing and distributing American property in Cuba, leading to U.S. cutting ties with Cuba
Big image


  • Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin became well know after stating Dean Acheson, Secretary of State, employed 205 known communists
  • Other Republicans started making use of attacks
  • Accusations grew after Republican victory in 1952, especially focusing on democrats
  • Majority of people approved of his actions
  • Eisenhower avoided conflict with him, let him control State Department policy
  • Finally brought own downfall by attacking military, they fought back with televised hearings in 1954
Big image

Desegregation in the South

  • Jim Crow laws still existed in 1950
  • Rosa Parks refused to move to back of bus to make room for white passengers, starting Montgomery Bus Boycott by blacks in area for a year
  • Boycott brought MLK to prominence in civil rights struggle
  • Chief Justice Warren, appointed by Eisenhower, fought to end segregation through judicial actions, such as the desegregation of schools in Brown Vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
  • Desegregation was heavily resisted in deep South
  • Eisenhower criticized Brown decision for going against American traditional values
  • in 1957, however, he was forced to protect 6 black children attempting to attend Little Rock's Central High school in Arkansas with federal troops
  • Congress that year established Civil Rights Commission to investigate civil rights violations
Big image

Eisenhower's Republican Policies

  • Maxim was that policy concerning people should be liberal, but policy with money should be conservative
  • Sought to balance federal budget and fight increasing socialism
  • Stopped military buildup and transferred offshore oil rights to individual states
  • Fought TVA by encouraging competition from a private company
  • Operation Wetback in 1954 returned illegal immigrants to Mexico to preserve bracero program
  • Tried to reverse Indian New Deal
  • Protected New Deal initiatives like Social Security, unemployment insurance, and labor programs
  • Backed Interstate Highway Act of 1956 to build 42 thousand miles of highway with
Big image

The Begining of the Vietnam War

  • In 1954, U.S. taxes paid for 80% of French colonial war against Ho Chi Minh
  • French lost at Dienbienphu in 1954, and resulting Geneva conference split Vietnam at 17th parallel into communist north under Ho Chi Minh and democratic south under Ngo Dinh Diem
  • Free elections were promised, but never held due to inevitability of communist victory
  • Eisenhower supported Diem in return for promise of social reform, which came slowly
Big image

The Space Race

  • Soviets launched Sputnik I and II in 1957, the first nation to launch objects into orbit
  • Proved that communism was productive to speculative nations
  • Made real the threat of an ICBM attack on the U.S. from the USSR
  • NASA was created to lead research on missile development
  • Many early failures, including the Vanguard rocket blowing up a few feet above ground
  • Finally launched a small satellite into orbit in 1958 and had ICBM capability by 1960
  • America lagging behind made people question education system, and led to the NDEA which gave loans to needy students and improved quality of sciences and language teaching in schools
Big image