The Sun

By Andrew Eberhardt

Big image
Big image

Core

This is the inner most part of the Sun. The sun is so dense that hydrogen compresses together to form helium and release energy through nuclear fusion. It is around 150 times as dense as water and has a temperature of around 15 million degrees Celsius or 28 million degrees Fahrenheit.

Radiative Zone

This is the layer of the Sun above the dense core. The density slowly decreases moving away from the core. Light produced by nuclear fusion in the core travels out the radiative zone. This layer is not as dense as the core but is still so dense that light from the core takes about 100,000 years to get out of the radiative zone.

Convective Zone

This is the layer of the Sun above the radiative zone. When the density of the radiative zone becomes lower, energy from the core is converted into heat. The heat from the edge of the radiative zone rises until it cools enough that it sinks back down. This pattern of heated material rising then cooling happens in convection cells.

Photosphere

The photosphere is the deepest layer of the Sun that we can observe directly. It reaches from the surface to about 250 miles (400 km) below it. The temperature in the photosphere is about 11,000 degrees F (6200 degrees C) at the bottom and 6700 degrees F (3700 degrees C) at the top.

Chromospere

The chromosphere is a layer in the Sun between 250 miles (400 km) and 1300 miles (2100 km) above the photosphere. The temperature in the chromosphere varies between about 6700 degrees F (3700 degrees C) at the bottom and 14,000 degrees F (7700 degrees C) at the top, so it actually gets hotter if you go further away from the Sun, unlike the other layers which is the opposite.

Corona

The corona is the outermost layer of the Sun, at about 1300 miles (2100 km) above the photosphere. The temperature in the corona is 900,000 degrees F (500,000 degrees C) or more. The corona cannot be seen except during a total solar eclipse, or with a coronagraph. The corona does not have a limit to how far it goes.

Sunspots

Dark spots, some as large as 50,000 miles in diameter, move across the surface of the sun, contracting and expanding as they go. They are cooler than the rest of the photosphere, but are still really hot. Some can even be seen with a naked eye.

Prominence

A prominence is an arc of gas that erupts from the surface of the Sun. They can loop hundreds of thousands of miles into space. They are held above the Sun's surface by strong magnetic fields and can last for many months. At some time most prominences will erupt, spewing enormous amounts of solar material into space.

Flare

A flare is a storm on the Sun which is a very bright spot and a surface eruption. Flares release huge amounts of high energy particles and gases and are very hot, ranging from 3.6 million to 24 million degrees F. They are blown thousands of miles from the surface of the Sun.

Aurora

An Aurora or the northern lights, is a natural light display in the sky. It is caused by charged electrons and protons coming from solar winds. They lose their energy in the upper atmosphere of earth and make the lights. There can be many different colors.

Bibliography

Young, Alex. "Layers of the Sun." The Sun Today. The Sun Today, n.d. Web. 14 Dec. 2015. <http://www.thesuntoday.org/overview/layers-of-the-sun/>.

Zell, Holly. "Layers of the Sun." NASA. NASA, 10 Oct. 2012. Web. 14 Dec. 2015. <http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/iris/multimedia/layerzoo.html>.

"Sunspots." Sunspots. Utk, n.d. Web. 14 Dec. 2015. <http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr162/lect/sun/sunspots.html>.

"Solar Flares, Prominences, and the Solar Wind - Enchanted Learning Software." Solar Flares, Prominences, and the Solar Wind - Enchanted Learning Software. Enchanted Learning, n.d. Web. 14 Dec. 2015. <http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/astronomy/sun/prominences.shtml>.

"Aurora." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 14 Dec. 2015. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aurora>.


Images

http://globe-views.com/dcim/dreams/sun/sun-05.jpg

http://www.astronoo.com/images/soleil/soleil-structure-layers.jpg

http://media.web.britannica.com/eb-media/04/92904-034-7C3D6409.jpg

http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/bestofsoho/images/large/cutaway00.jpg

https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTnOj7htwH37Sn3ibOgTWTToy87fg8ReJpTt1unxO5w5jWYblS2wA

http://frigg.physastro.mnsu.edu/~eskridge/astr102/chromo.gif

https://0.s3.envato.com/files/65810311/Corona.Sun.jpg

http://science.nasa.gov/media/medialibrary/2008/09/30/30sep_blankyear_resources/midi512_blank_2001.gif

http://i2.cdn.turner.com/cnn/2012/images/11/20/double-prominence-hrzgal.jpg

http://osnetdaily.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/flare6.jpg

http://www.aurorahealthanddayspa.com/green_lights_aurora_borealis_1920x1080_wallpaper_Wallpaper_1920x1080_www.wall321.com.jpg