Muskaan Mahal & Sanggavi Jeyaramachandra
Jean William Fritz Piaget
Born: August 9 1896
Died: September 16 1980
He was a developmental psychologist and philosopher
Known for his studies with children
Born in Neuchatel, Switzerland
His father, Arthur Piaget was a professor of medieval literature
Jean Piaget was the first psychologist to make a systematic study of cognitive development
Synopsis Of Theory
According to Piaget, children’s thought processes change as they mature physically and interact with the world around them. Piaget believed children develop schema, or mental models, to represent the world. As children learn, they expand and modify their schema through the processes of assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation is the broadening of an existing schema to include new information. Accommodation is the modification of a schema as new information is incorporated.
Through his observations of his own children, Piaget developed a theory of development that included four stages.
During the early stages, infants are only aware of what is immediately in front of them. They focus on what they see, what they are doing, and physical interactions with their immediate environment. Because they don't yet know how things react, they're constantly experimenting with activities such as shaking or throwing things, putting things in their mouths, and learning about the world through trial and error. The later stages include goal-oriented behaviour which brings about a desired result. Between ages 7 and 9 months, infants begin to realize that an object exists even if it can no longer be seen.
At age 2 to 4 , Increased use of verbal representation but speech is egocentric (an inability to differentiate between self and other). The beginnings of symbolic rather than simple motor play. Can think about something without the object being present by use of language.
From ages 4 to 7, Speech becomes more social, less egocentric. The child has an intuitive grasp of logical concepts in some areas. However, there is still a tendency to focus attention on one aspect of an object while ignoring others.
By observing other people's behaviour, expressions, comments, and appearance they can interpret this information and make reasonable guesses about what another person may be thinking, wanting, needing, or feeling.
Children may feel exceptionally unique and different from other people. Piaget called this the "personal fable." Some kids feel as though they are better, smarter, or stronger than others.This personal fable can lead to some devastating consequences because these youth may take dangerous risks when they over-estimate their abilities and believe they can "handle it," or mistakenly believe they are powerful and that bad things cannot happen to them.
Other children may feel as though they are dumber, weaker, and inferior to others. This kind of personal fable can lead to feelings of sadness, frustration, and loneliness. If these negative thoughts and feelings continue to strengthen, kids can become depressed or hopeless, which can lead to other dangerous behaviours. Which is why children need their caregivers' love, guidance, and support to help them through difficult circumstances.
Born: May 6, 1856
Died: September 23, 1939
Was an Austrian neurologist
Known as the founding father of psychoanalysis
Born in town Moravian, Austrian Empire (now part of the Czech Republic)
Eldest of 8 children
Father was a wool merchant with 2 sons from first marriage
Planned to study law, joined medicine instead and studied philosophy, physiology and zoology
SYNOPSIS OF THEORY
STAGE 1- The Oral Stage; birth to 1 year
STAGE 2- The Anal Stage; 1 to 3 years
STAGE 3- The Phallic Stage; 3 to 6 years
STAGE 4- The Latent Period; 6 to puberty
STAGE 5- The Genital Stage; puberty to death