Kellogg Briand pact

Nicholas Gutierrez

Summary

The Kellogg-Briand Pact was an agreement to outlaw war signed on August 27, 1928. Sometimes called the Pact of Paris for the city in which it was signed, the pact was one of many international efforts to prevent another World War, but it had little effect in stopping the rising militarism of the 1930s or preventing World War II.On August 27, 1928, fifteen nations signed the pact at Paris. Signatories included France, the United States, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Belgium, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Italy and Japan. Later, an additional forty-seven nations followed suit, so the pact was eventually signed by most of the established nations in the world. The U.S. Senate ratified the agreement by a vote of 85–1, though it did so only after making reservations to note that U.S. participation did not limit its right to self-defense or require it to act against signatories breaking the agreement.

Significance

As a result of Kellogg’s proposal, nearly all the nations of the world eventually subscribed to the Kellogg-Briand Pact, agreeing to renounce war as an instrument of national policy and to settle all international disputes by peaceful means. The signatories allowed themselves a great variety of qualifications and interpretations, however, so that the pact would not prohibit, for example, wars of self-defense or certain military obligations arising from the League Covenant, the Monroe Doctrine, or postwar treaties of alliance. These conditions, in addition to the treaty’s failure to establish a means of enforcement, rendered the agreement completely ineffective.

Bibliography

"The Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928 - 1921–1936 - Milestones - Office of the Historian." The Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928 - 1921–1936 - Milestones - Office of the Historian. Web. 20 Mar. 2015.https://history.state.gov/milestones/1921-1936/kellogg


"Kellogg-Briand Pact | France-United States [1928]." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 20 Mar. 2015.http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/314413/Kellogg-Briand-Pact