Europe's Physical Geography

By: Beth, Nicholas, and Vlad

Basic Information

  • Europe is a peninsula of the Eurasian supercontinent and is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, and the Atlantic and the mediterranean, Black, Caspian seas to the south.
  • Europe’s main peninsulas are the Iberian, Italian, and Balkan, located in southern Europe, and the Scandinavian and Jutland, located in northern Europe.

Iberian Pennisula

  • Includes Portugal and Spain.

Second largest peninsula in Europe.

  • Is located on an important route between Africa and Europe.
  • Has rich ecosystems of a large variety.
  • Has more than 8,000 species of plants.

Italian Pennisula

  • Has a boot shape.
  • Includes Italy.
  • The largest peninsula in Europe.
  • Contains Apennines, which is a mountain range.
  • Extends into the Mediterranean sea.

Jutland Pennisula

  • The Jutland Peninsula or more historically the Cimbrian Peninsula is a peninsula in Europe, divided between Denmark and Germany. The names are derived from the Jutes and the Cimbri.
  • The historic region of Jutland, the area that was covered by Codex Holmiens is covered the Jutland Peninsula area north of Eider River and included Funen, the North Jutlandic Island and other smaller islands. Much of the varying definitions of what Jutland consists of are due to differences between the Jutland peninsula considered as a geographic feature and Jutland considered as a historical political territory.
  • Its terrain is relatively flat, with open lands, plains and peat bogs in the west and a more elevated and slightly hilly terrain in the east.

  • Denmark occupies most of the Jutland Peninsula and the pensinsula contains all of the Danish mainland. A small portion of Germany also occupies the peninsula, which extends into the North Sea.

Scandanavien Peninsula

  • The Scandinavian Peninsula is a peninsula in Northern Europe, which today covers Norway, Sweden, and most of northern Finland.
  • Arguably the largest peninsula in Europe, the Scandinavian Peninsula is approximately 1,850 kilometers (1,150 mi) long with a width varying approximately from 370 to 805 kilometers (230 to 500 miles). The Scandinavian mountain range generally defines the border between Norway and Sweden. The peninsula is bordered by several bodies of water including:
  • the Baltic Sea (including the Gulf of Bothnia) to the east, with the autonomous Åland islands between Sweden and Finland, and Gotland.
  • the North Sea (including the Kattegat and Skagerrak) to the west and southwest
  • the Norwegian Sea to the west
  • the Barents Sea to the north
  • Its highest elevation was Glittertinden in Norway at 2,470 m (8,104 ft) above sea level, but since the glacier at its summit partially melted, the highest elevation is at 2,469 m (8,101 ft) at Galdhøpiggen, also in Norway. These mountains also have the largest glacier on the mainland of Europe, Jostedalsbreen.

The Economy and Social Lives

Europe's vast amount of pennisulas helps greatly helps the economy. First of all, there is fishing. Many companies have formed by catching, cleaning, cutting, and selling fish and other marine animals. Tourism is also a big part of the pennisulas. During the summer many people will visit the beaches and board walks. Lastly, there are docks and ports on the outskirts of the pennisulas for shipping. Many boats and supply ships go in and out. Without the pennisulas, the economy would not be as strong. Socially, with all the trade and transportation off the docks it inables a chance of cultural diffusion. Many Europeans today can speak 4 to 5 different languages, and many people form different countries share certain cultural traditions.

Essential Question

How does Europe's physical geography affect Europe economically and socially?