Genetics

Ashlee Hunt

Traits/Heredity

  • Trait: an inherited characteristic
  • Ex. Blue Eyes
  • Heredity: process in which qualities are passed on from parent to child
  • Ex. hairline
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Dominant and Recessive

Dominant traits will show up in the offspring; whereas, a recessive will not unless two are passed down by the parents.

Dominant: Brown Eyes-------------Recessive: Blue eyes

Homozygous/Heterozygous

Homozygous: having two of the same alleles

Ex. BB, bb

Heterozygous: having two different alleles

Ex. Bb

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X Linked Disorders

caused by gene alteration of the x chromosome

Ex. muscular dystrophy, hemophilia

DNA Replication

process of producing 2 identical replicas from one DNA strand

Protein Synthesis

  • DNA encodes for production of amino acids and protein
  • Transcription: process of making a RNA copy of a gene sequence
  • Translation: process of translating the sequence of a messenger RNA molecule to a sequence of amino acids and proteins

Genetic Engineering

  1. Genetic engineering is the process of manually adding new DNA to an organism. The goal is to add one or more new traits that are not already found in that organism. Ex. insulin

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Mitosis

Cell process in which chromosomes in a nucleus are separated into 2 identical sets; asxual

Meiosis

The daughter cells divide again, splitting up sister chromotids to form haploid gametes; sexual

Gametes

Mature sexual reproduction cell

Ex. Sperm and Egg

Haploid & Diploid

Haploid: only one set of chromosomes

Diploid: paired chromosomes, one set from each parent

Watson and Crick

Discovered chemical structure of DNA; double helix

Mutations

Natural process that changes DNA sequence

  • insertion: extra base pairs are inserted into a new place
  • deletion: base pairs are taken out of DNA strand
  • substitution: exchanges one base pair for another