Types of mining

1. Surface Mining

There are three types of surface mining-
  • Strip: similar to open pit mining, removal of rock and soil that is over the ore
  • Open pit: extracting materials from a pit, also called borrowing
  • Mountaintop removal: involves massive restriction of the land to gain access to a deposit that may lie as much as 1,000 feet below ground.

2. Subsurface

There are 3 types of Subsurface mining-
  • Slope: a shaft is dug at a downward slope to access the desired material
  • Drift: accessing desired material by making a horizontal cut into the side of the earth like in a hillside
  • Shaft: involves drilling a vertical passageway to an underground mine

Mining Effects

Surface Mining:

  • Creates a mess
  • Does more damage to the environment


Subsurface Mining:

  • Not too much damage
  • Difficult and expensive to dig
  • Very dangerous conditions

3. Fracking

  1. How it's done: Horizontal wells are filled with water, with seeps into water. Precious gases and oils are forced out and into storage units ready for use.
  2. Effects: Contaminates drinking water, releases harmful VOC's into the atmosphere, causes brain damage, wastes a lot of water

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