Academic Performance

What factors contribute to better academic performance?

Test Anxiety, Study Habits, and Academic Achievement

  • Performed in Nigeria
  • 508 college students (between ages of 19-24) were involved
  • 3 questionnaires in 45 minutes

The study was subject blind but not evaluator blind. The students were taking these questionnaires in a classroom setting and were not aware of the study, however, the evaluator knew about the study and collected data based on the test scores. The study did contain the three characteristics of an experiment.


Lurking Variables

  • Students may not have taken the tests seriously
  • Could have been error in collecting the test scores

Influence of Time Spent Studying and Working

  • Performed in United States
  • 276,449 students from 413 four year colleges and universities
  • These students were questioned a few weeks before finals
  • Number of hours studying compared to ACT scores


This study did not include the three characteristics of a well designed experiment, and the study was neither subject blind nor evaluator blind.


Lurking Variables


  • Students could have been dishonest about their study habits

CCTL Study

  • Students ranging from grades 9-13
  • 2 questions


This study is neither subject blind or evaluator blind. It does have the three characteristics of a well designed experiment.


Lurking Variables

  • Dishonesty
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