Safety and Sanitation

By: Jenna Everman and Ally Scott

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First Aid 101:

For minor cuts and wounds:

  • Wash the wound with clean (or boiled and cooled) water and soap.
  • Dry the skin around the wound.
  • Cover the wound with a clean cloth and place a sterile bandage over it.

For serious cuts and wounds:

  • If a piece of glass or other object is sticking in the wound, do not remove it. It may be preventing further bleeding, and removing it could make the injury worse.
  • If the person is bleeding heavily, raise the injured area above the level of the chest and press firmly against the wound (or near it if something is stuck in it) with a pad made of folded clean cloth. Maintain pressure until the bleeding stops.
  • Do not put any plant or animal matter on the wound, as this could cause infection.
  • Put a clean sterile bandage on the wound. Allow for swelling by not tying the bandage too tightly.
  • Seek medical help immediately. Ask a trained health worker if the child should have a tetanus injection.


  • Stand behind the person with your arms around the waist.
  • Form a clenched fist with your thumb against the person's body, above the navel and below the rib cage.
  • Put the other hand over the fist and give a sharp inward and upward thrust into the person's abdomen. Repeat until the object is dislodged.
  • If you cannot dislodge the object, take the child to the nearest health worker immediately.


  • If a person has swallowed poison, do not try to make the person vomit. This may make them more ill.
  • If poison is on the person's skin or clothes, remove the clothing and pour large amounts of water over the skin. Wash the skin thoroughly several times with soap.
  • If a person gets poison in his or her eyes, splash clean water in the eyes for at least 10 minutes.
  • Take the person immediately to a health centre or hospital if any of these situations occur. If possible, bring a sample of the poison or medicine or its container with you. Keep them as still and quiet as possible.


  • If the person's clothing catches fire, quickly wrap them in a blanket or clothing or roll him or her on the ground to put out the fire.
Minor Burns:

  • Cool the burned area immediately. Use plenty of cold, clean water, which helps to reduce pain and swelling. Do not put ice on the burn; this can further damage the skin.
  • Keep the burn clean and dry with a loose sterile gauze bandage or clean cloth. This will protect blistered skin.
  • Do not break blisters, as they protect the injured area. If a blister is broken, the area is more susceptible to infection. Do not apply butter or ointments to the burn; they can prevent proper healing.
  • A minor burn will usually heal without further treatment.
Major Burns:

  • Do not remove the burned clothing from the body. Make sure the person is no longer near any burning or smouldering materials or exposed to smoke or heat.
  • Do not immerse large, serious burns in cold water, as this could cause shock.
  • Raise the burned body part or parts above heart level, if possible.
  • Loosely cover the burn area with cool, moist towels or cloths or a sterile bandage.


When a person falls, the first thing to do is make sure there are no serious and obvious injuries- no broken bones, heavy bleeding, seizures, and that the person is conscious. If the fall was ‘bad’ do not allow them to move until you are sure no injuries have been done to their head, neck, back, or hips.

If there seems to be a serious injury, like any of the ones listed above and more, call 911 for aid. Also call if you see any of these signs

Unconsciousness- even if it is very brief (concussion)

Becomes very sleepy or is difficult to wake up (concussion)

Walking in an abnormal fashion- off balance, dizzy (concussion)

Difficulty breathing

No breathing -begin CPR (no breath or pulse) or EAR (pulse present) immediately!)

Clear fluid or bleeding coming from nose, ears or mouth.

Complains of intense or increasing pain


Deep or large wounds

Trouble focusing eyesight, distorted vision. (concussion)

Odd behavior or symptoms

Irritable and oddly moody, nonstop crying.

If the fall does not seem to be an emergency, but the child is young, keep watch over them closely for the next 24 or so hours, to make certain that no symptoms of injury or strange behavior develop. If you fear a concussion, due to a fall involving the head, even if there are no symptoms always go see a doctor.

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Personal Hygiene & Hand Washing

Personal hygiene when handling food:

  • Thoroughly wash and dry your hands before handling food, and wash and dry them again frequently during work.
  • Dry your hands with clean towels, disposable paper towels or under an air dryer.
  • Never smoke, chew gum, spit, change a baby’s nappy or eat in a food handling or food storage area.
  • Never cough or sneeze over food or where food is prepared or stored. ; Wear clean protective clothing, such as an apron.
  • Keep your spare clothes and other personal items away from where food is stored and prepared.
  • If you have long hair, tie it back or cover it. ; Keep your nails short so they are easy to clean, and don’t wear nail polish as it can chip into the food.
  • Avoid wearing jewelery, or only wear plain banded rings and sleeper earrings.
  • If you have cuts or wounds, make sure they are completely covered by a waterproof wound strip or a bandage.
  • Wear disposable gloves over the top of the wound strip if you have wounds on your hands.

Hand Washing

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Foodborne Illness-

  1. Foodborne- Sickness caused by eating food that contains a contaminant. The main cause of this is Microorganisms, they are living things that are so small you can only see them with microscope.
  2. Cross Contamination- Is the spread of harmful bacteria from one food to another
  3. Thawing food- You can thaw food in the... Refrigerator, Microwave, and Sink

Food Prep& Storage-

  1. Temp Danger Zone- 40'F- 140'F
  2. Internal temp of meat &poultry- Meat- 180'F Poultry- 170'F