Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21)

By: Mirian Magana Ambrocio

What causes Down Syndrome?


About 95% of the time, Down syndrome is caused by trisomy 21, the child has three copies of chromosome 21, instead of the usual two copies in all cells. This is caused by abnormal cell division during the development of the sperm cell or the egg cell.

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Which gene or chromosome affects Down Syndrome?

Down syndrome is affected by Chromosome 21
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Are there and prenatal tests for Down Syndrome?

Yes there is a prenatal test for down syndrome, and in fact, there is two main prenatal test for down syndrome and they are amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling.

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What are the symptoms for Down Syndrome?

Flat facial features

Small head and ears

Short neck

Bulging tongue

Eyes that slant upwards

Oddly shaped ears

Poor muscle tone
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What population is affected by Down Syndrome?

Down syndrome occurs in about one in every 800 live births in the United States, or about 6,000 children per year.

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How is Down Syndrome inherited?

Most cases of Down syndrome are not inherited. When the condition is caused by trisomy 21, the chromosomal abnormality occurs as a random event during the formation of reproductive cells in a parent. The abnormality usually occurs in egg cells, but it occasionally occurs in sperm cells.

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What kind of medical assistance is the child with Down Syndrome needed?

Professionals experienced in caring for children with Down's syndrome will be able to help you with any difficulties you or your child are having.

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Are there any treatments or cures for Down Syndrome?

The treatment for Down Syndrome can include-Regular checkups and screening, Medications, Surgery, Counseling and support.

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Could Down Syndrome have been prevented?

There's no way to prevent Down syndrome. If you're at high risk of having a child with Down syndrome or you already have one child with Down syndrome, you may want to consult a genetic counselor before becoming pregnant.

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Can children with Down Syndrome have children in the future?

People with Down’s syndrome have the right to have personal relationships, and to get married. Where one parent has Down’s syndrome, there is a 35% to 50% chance that the child would inherit the syndrome. This chance is even higher where both parents have Down’s syndrome.
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What is the current status of research for Down Syndrome?

Scientists are working hard on ways to treat Down syndrome but a cure is a long way off, And shutting off the extra chromosome is even farther off.

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Resources

Another name for Down Syndrome http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/down-syndrome


What causes Down Syndrome? http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/down-syndrome/basics/causes/con-20020948


Which gene or chromosome affects Down Syndrome? http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/chromosome/21


Are there and prenatal tests for Down Syndrome? http://patient.info/health/prenatal-screening-and-diagnosis-of-downs-syndrome


What are the symptoms for Down Syndrome? http://www.healthline.com/health/down-syndrome#Symptoms5


What population is affected by Down Syndrome? Book 2: 310-317


How is Down Syndrome inherited? http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/down-syndrome


What kind of medical assistance is the child with Down Syndrome needed? http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Downs-syndrome/Pages/Treatment.aspx


Are there any treatments or cures for Down Syndrome? http://down-syndrome.emedtv.com/down-syndrome/treatment-for-down-syndrome.html


Could Down Syndrome have been prevented? http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/down-syndrome/basics/prevention/con-20020948


Can children with Down Syndrome have children in the future? http://www.downs-syndrome.org.uk/for-new-parents/faqs/general/


What is the current status of research for Down Syndrome? http://genetics.thetech.org/ask/ask361