Diabetes

Anya Ortakales

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is an autoimmune disease when the person has high blood glucose levels, or high blood sugar, and either the body does not create enough insulin or the body does not respond to the insulin. The immune system does not work as it should by attacking the insulin cells. The immune system protects the body from bacteria and viruses. Insulin is very important, because it lowers blood sugar levels in the body.
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Types of Diabetes

There are three types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, or also called juvenile diabetes, is normally diagnosed to children and about 10% of diabetics are Type 1. Type 1 can be genetic and is also caused by the decrease in insulin. The type that has spread the most is Type 2. Type 2 diabetes is mostly found in adults and usually because of their diets or being overweight. They also have an insulin resistance. Nearly 90% of diabetics are diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. Lastly, Gestational diabetes affects women during pregnancy.
Interview about Type 1 Diabetes
I selected this condition because my two 14 year old cousins have Type 1 diabetes and my grandmother has Type 2 diabetes. I feel that more people in the world need to know how serious diabetes is and how much it affects not just their health, but their lifestyle, also. Above is a video of a small interview of my cousin about how diabetes affects her.

"If you have diabetes, you are at least twice as likely as someone who does not have diabetes to have heart disease or a stroke." - National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse

Body systems affected by Diabetes

The pancreas creates enzymes which are kept in the small intestine to process food once it has left the stomach. With Type 2 diabetes, the pancreas makes insulin, but the insulin leaves the body without the pancreas able to use it. The nervous system normally works with small cells in the brain, or neurons, where the neurons take the different senses and send them to the brain, which causes us to react to them. Diabetes affects seeing in the nervous system by causing eye problems and in some cases, blindness. High blood sugar levels cause the kidney to work harder than a non-diabetic kidney would, which can cause it to fail. Kidneys that are working correctly create urine by filtering blood inside of the human body.

Diagnosis

A fasting plasma glucose test is used after not eating for 8 hours, when it measures your blood glucose. A second test is an oral glucose tolerance test, which is similar to the fasting plasma glucose test, but with an added two hours after drinking beverages with glucose in the ingredients. Lastly, for the random plasma glucose test, a doctor looks at your blood sugar without considering the time since your last meal.

Also, some signs and symptoms of diabetes are usually more of a need to drink liquids and to urinate, feeling tired more frequently, a tingling feeling in hands, feet, or legs, and not being able to see clearly.

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Treatment

Most diabetics take insulin tablets or have an insulin pump that is attached to their bodies and pumps insulin through the body. They must also be on certain diets without too much sugar and they have tests they must take multiple times each day before eating to determine how many carbohydrates are in their food and how much they can eat. To take the test, they prick their finger with a sterilized needle and through their blood, the test determines what their blood sugar level is. Because they must prick their fingers often each day, they start to develop small scars or scabs on their fingers.

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Life Expectancy

The Office for National Statistics established that the life expectancy for diabetics is around 77 years old for males and 81 years old for females.The life expectancy for people with Type 1 diabetes is shortened by 20 years.

Works Cited

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"The Eyes and Diabetes." - Types of Diabetic Retinopathy & Eye Care. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Jan. 2015.

"How Does Diabetes Affect The Body?" How Does Diabetes Affect The Body. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Jan. 2015.

"Insulin Pump." N.p., n.d. Web.

Medical News Today. MediLexicon International, n.d. Web. 19 Jan. 2015.

"National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse (NDIC)." Causes of Diabetes. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Jan. 2015.

"Which Systems of the Body Are Affected by Diabetes?" LIVESTRONG.COM. LIVESTRONG.COM, 03 May 2011. Web. 21 Jan. 2015


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