Bihar is one of the 28 states of India. Patna is the capital of Bihar. It is landlocked state and located in the eastern part of India It is bounded by the country of Nepal on north, by Uttar Pradesh on west, by Jharkhand on south and by West Bengal on east.
A Brief History
Magadha, the modern Bihar, had been the center of the great dynasties of Maurya and Gupta. Buddhism, one of the most popular religions of the world arose from here. Mahavir Jain was born in Bihar. One of the first democracies of the world, Lichhavi, existed in the region of Bihar.
Bihar remained under the uncertain times during the medieval period. However, Bihar rose to the glory during the time of Sher Shah Suri, who was from Sasaram.
The official language of Bihar is Hindi, Urdu and Maithili. Hindi is the first official language of state.
Angika, Bhojpuri, Magadhi and Bajjika are the other important languages. However, these languages are not considered as independent languages. Rather they are considered as the dialect of Hindi. The urban Bihar speaks in Hindi and Urdu. However, the rural Bihar speaks the Bihari languages like Maithili, Angika, Bhojpuri and Bajjika. Urdu is the mother tongue of most of the Muslims of Bihar. Bihar has produced many writers and scholars in Hindi, Urdu, and English.
Chhath is the major festival of Bihar. There are 2 chhats (Chaiti Chhat and Kartik Chhath). Chhath is the worship of the Sun God. Nowadays, Chhath is celebrated at almost every place in India, where people from Bihar emigrated
For religious observance, , many pilgrims, known as Kanwarias, wear saffron coloured clothes and collect water from a sacred Ghat (river bank) at Sultanganj, walking the 108 km stretch barefooted to the town of Deoghar to bathe a sacred Shiva-Linga.
Teej and Chitragupta Puja are the local festival of Bihar. Bihula-Bishari Puja is celebrated in Anga region of Bihar.
Apart from these local festivals, major Indian festivals like Makar Sankranti, Eid-ul-Azha, Eid-ul-Fitar, Moharram, Holi, Diwali, Durga Puja, Sarswati Puja, Raksha Bandhan and others are celebrated with fervor.
Folk Dance and Song of Bihar
Folk songs are mostly sung by Bihari amateurs all over the state. The folk dance tradition in Bihar has three distinct streams. One of them is the folk dances of Videha, the present Mithila which is mainly rooted in the songs of poets, the second stream is those of the Adivasis which are closer to nature, social institutions and rituals. The third stream relates to the Chhau dance of Seraikella and other regions of south Bihar. Music and dance play a pivotal role in the life of the tribal communities. Most of them have well-organised institutions for providing training in these arts to young men and women.
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