Grammar

By: Emma and Flo

Phrases

Phrase-a group of words that does not contain a subject or a verb.


Prepositonal phrase-A modifying phrase consisting of a preposition and its object.


Participial Phrases- It is always used as an adjective phrase to modify a noun or pronoun. It includes the participle together with its modifiers, objects, or predicate words.


Appositeive phrases- It is a noun or noun phrase that renames other nouns right beside it. The appositive can be a short or long combination of words.

Prepositional Phrase Examples

Ex:

He dunked the ball over them.

He dunked the ball [over them.]

Ex:

The cow jumped over the moon.

The cow jumped [over the moon.]


Prepositions

About, above, across, after, against, along, among, around, as, at before, behind, below, beneath, beside, besides, between, beyond, but, by, down, during, except, for, from, in, inside, into, like, near, of, off, on, onto, opposite, out, outside, over, past, since, through, to, toward, under, underneath, until, up, upon, with, within, without.


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Participical Phrase

A participial phrases always begins with a participle witch is a verb ending in ed, en, or ing.

Participial Phrases Examples


Ex: Emma, having won the chess game, looked up happily.


Ex: Annoyed by the noise, the teacher spoke fiercely to the class.

Appositive Phrases

Appositive Phrase- It is a noun or noun phrase that renames another noun right beside it. The appositive can be a short or long combination of words.


Examples

Ex: The insect,a large spider with hairy legs, is crawling across the kitchen table.




Independent Clause

Independent Clause- contains a subject and a verb-makes a complete sentence-it can stand alone

independent clause = sentences

Examples


Ex: The cat jumped over the tree.

Ex: The dog ran around the rock.

Dependent Clause

Dependent clause- A clause in a complex sentence that cannot stand alone as a complete sentence and that functions within the sentence as a noun or adjective or adverb.

Examples

Ex: If at first you don't succeed, try something else.

Ex: The project was not completed on time, because the machine parts were stolen.

Simple Sentence

Simple Sentence-(Independent Clause). A sentence consisting of only one clause, with a single subject and predicate.

Examples

Ex: I enjoy sitting by the fireplace and reading.

Ex: Cheetahs are the fastest land animals.

Compound Sentence

Compound Sentence (independent clause)- Has two simple sentences, or independent clauses. The clauses are connected one of two ways: with a coordinator or coordinating conjunction, or with a semicolon.

Examples

Ex: Sally waited for the bus, and it arrived on time.

Ex: You have waited very patiently; finally the day has arrived.

Complex Sentences

Complex Sentence (Dependent and Independent clauses)-Has one independent clause (sentence) and at least one dependent clause. A dependent clause has a subject and verb, but is not a complete thought, so it cannot stand alone. These two clauses are joined by a special word (after, although, as, as if, because, before, even if, even though, if, in order to, since, though, unless, until, whatever, when, whenever, whether, and while).

Examples

Ex: He went to the party after he did his chores.

Ex: After I came home, I made dinner.