By: Emma and Flo


Phrase-a group of words that does not contain a subject or a verb.

Prepositonal phrase-A modifying phrase consisting of a preposition and its object.

Participial Phrases- It is always used as an adjective phrase to modify a noun or pronoun. It includes the participle together with its modifiers, objects, or predicate words.

Appositeive phrases- It is a noun or noun phrase that renames other nouns right beside it. The appositive can be a short or long combination of words.

Prepositional Phrase Examples


He dunked the ball over them.

He dunked the ball [over them.]


The cow jumped over the moon.

The cow jumped [over the moon.]


About, above, across, after, against, along, among, around, as, at before, behind, below, beneath, beside, besides, between, beyond, but, by, down, during, except, for, from, in, inside, into, like, near, of, off, on, onto, opposite, out, outside, over, past, since, through, to, toward, under, underneath, until, up, upon, with, within, without.

Participical Phrase

A participial phrases always begins with a participle witch is a verb ending in ed, en, or ing.

Participial Phrases Examples

Ex: Emma, having won the chess game, looked up happily.

Ex: Annoyed by the noise, the teacher spoke fiercely to the class.

Appositive Phrases

Appositive Phrase- It is a noun or noun phrase that renames another noun right beside it. The appositive can be a short or long combination of words.


Ex: The insect,a large spider with hairy legs, is crawling across the kitchen table.

Independent Clause

Independent Clause- contains a subject and a verb-makes a complete sentence-it can stand alone

independent clause = sentences


Ex: The cat jumped over the tree.

Ex: The dog ran around the rock.

Dependent Clause

Dependent clause- A clause in a complex sentence that cannot stand alone as a complete sentence and that functions within the sentence as a noun or adjective or adverb.


Ex: If at first you don't succeed, try something else.

Ex: The project was not completed on time, because the machine parts were stolen.

Simple Sentence

Simple Sentence-(Independent Clause). A sentence consisting of only one clause, with a single subject and predicate.


Ex: I enjoy sitting by the fireplace and reading.

Ex: Cheetahs are the fastest land animals.

Compound Sentence

Compound Sentence (independent clause)- Has two simple sentences, or independent clauses. The clauses are connected one of two ways: with a coordinator or coordinating conjunction, or with a semicolon.


Ex: Sally waited for the bus, and it arrived on time.

Ex: You have waited very patiently; finally the day has arrived.

Complex Sentences

Complex Sentence (Dependent and Independent clauses)-Has one independent clause (sentence) and at least one dependent clause. A dependent clause has a subject and verb, but is not a complete thought, so it cannot stand alone. These two clauses are joined by a special word (after, although, as, as if, because, before, even if, even though, if, in order to, since, though, unless, until, whatever, when, whenever, whether, and while).


Ex: He went to the party after he did his chores.

Ex: After I came home, I made dinner.